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美國憲法正文及其修正案(中英對照~~~惠民帖~~)
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美國憲法正文及其修正案(中英對照~~~惠民帖~~

 

http://www.douban.com/note/235870976/

 

2012-09-09 21:43:10

最近在讀美國歷史。在這個過程中,案邊有一部美國憲法原文及其修正案和一個相對較好的譯文顯得十分重要。可上網一搜,結果並不令人滿意。維琪百科(中文版)中的“美國憲法”條目中,沒有英文原文。原版的維琪百科中,搜索“Constitution of the United States”,會得到我想要的答案,但是對於初學美國史的人來說,有一些詞彙和句意恐怕不是那麼容易理解,儘管可能你的英語水準已經很高。還有一些英漢對照的帖子,很不錯,但只限於權利法案部分。綜上,我覺得在學習美國史的過程中,整理出一套中英文對照的美國憲法修正案是必不可少的(你總不能一邊看書一邊還在不停地翻譯那些拗口的文獻,而這些文獻恰恰是作為你讀書時的輔助工具的)。這也是我做該帖的初衷。如果有哪些需要改進的地方,務必告之。(注:美國憲法正文部分只摘錄了譯文。只因為該部分很少受到爭議,較之27個修正案來講,正文部分很少掀起波瀾)Constitution of the United States (美國憲法) We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.(我們合眾國人民,為建立更完善的聯邦,樹立正義,保障國內安寧,提供共同防務,促進公共福利,並使我們自己和後代得享自由的幸福,特為美利堅合眾國制定本憲法。)          Article One of the United States Constitution: 第一款 本憲法授予的全部立法權,屬於由參議院和眾議院組成的合眾國國會。 第二款 眾議院由各州人民每兩年選舉產生的眾議員組成。每個州的選舉人須具備該州州議會人數最多一院選舉人所必需的資格。凡年齡不滿二十五歲,成為合眾國公民不滿七年,在一州當選時不是該州居民者,不得擔任眾議員。 [眾議員名額和直接稅稅額,在本聯邦可包括的各州中,按照各自人口比例進行分配。各州人口數,按自由人總數加上所有其他人口的五分之三予以確定。自由人總數包括必須服一定年限勞役的人,但不包括未被徵稅的印第安人。]人口的實際統計在合眾國國會第一次會議後三年內和此後每十年內,依法律規定的方式進行。每三萬人選出的眾議員人數不得超過一名,但每州至少須有一名眾議員;在進行上述人口統計以前,新罕布什爾州有權選出三名,麻塞諸塞州八名,羅德島州和普羅 維登斯種植地一名,康涅狄格州五名,紐約州六名,新澤西州四名,賓夕法尼亞州八名,德拉瓦州一名,馬里蘭州六名,維吉尼亞州十名,北卡羅來納州五名,南卡羅來納州五名,佐治亞州三名。 任何一州代表出現缺額時,該州行政當局應發佈選舉令,以填補此項缺額。 眾議院選舉本院議長和其他官員,並獨自擁有彈劾權。 第三款 合眾國參議院由[每州州議會選舉的]兩名參議員組成,任期六年;每名參議員有一票表決權。 參議員在第一次選舉後集會時,立即分為人數盡可能相等的三個組。第一組參議員席位在第二年年終空出,第二組參議員席位在第四年年終空出,第三組參議員席位在第六年年終空出,以便三分之一的參議員得每二年改選一次。[在任何一州州議會休會期間,如因辭職或其他原因而出現缺額時,該州行政長官在州議會下次集會填補此項缺額前,得任命臨時參議員。] 凡年齡不滿三十歲,成為合眾國公民不滿九年,在一州當選時不是該州居民者,不得擔任參議員。合眾國副總統任參議院議長,但除非參議員投票時贊成票和反對票相等,無表決權。 參議院選舉本院其他官員,並在副總統缺席或行使合眾國總統職權時,選舉一名臨時議長。 參議院獨自擁有審判一切彈劾案的權力。為此目的而開庭時,全體參議員須宣誓或作代誓宣言。合眾國總統受審時,最高法院首席大法官主持審判。無論何人,非經出席參議員三分之二的同意,不得被定罪。彈劾案的判決,不得超出免職和剝奪擔任和享有合眾國屬下有榮譽、有責任或有薪金的任何職務的資格。但被定罪的人,仍可依法起訴、審判、判決和懲罰。 第四款 舉行參議員和眾議員選舉的時間、地點和方式,在每個州由該州議會規定。但除選舉參議員的地點外,國會得隨時以法律制定或改變這類規定。國會每年至少開會一次,除非國會以法律另訂日期外,此會議在(十二月第一個星期一]舉行。 第五款 每院是本院議員的選舉、選舉結果報告和資格的裁判者。每院議員過半數,即構成議事的法定人數;但不足法定人數時,得逐日休會,並有權按每院規定的方式和罰則,強迫缺席議員出席會議。每院得規定本院議事規則,懲罰本院議員擾亂秩序的行為,並經三之二議員的同意開除議員。 每院應有本院會議記錄,並不時予以公佈,但它認為需要保密的部分除外。每院議員對於任何問題的贊成票和反對票,在出席議員五分之一的請求下,應載入會議記錄。在國會開會期間,任何一院,未經另一院同意,不得休會三日以上,也不得到非兩院開會的任何地方休會。 第六款 參議員和眾議員應得到服務的報酬,此項報酬由法律確定並由合眾國國庫支付。他們除犯叛國罪、重罪和妨害治安罪外,在一切情況下都享有在出席各自議院會議期間和往返於各自議院途中不受逮捕的特權。他們不得因在各自議院發表的演說或辯論而在任何其他地方受到質問。參議員或眾議員在當選任期內,不得被任命擔任在此期間設置或增薪的合眾國管轄下的任何文官職務。凡在合眾國屬下任職者,在繼續任職期間不得擔任任何一院議員。 第七款 所有徵稅議案應首先在眾議院提出,但參議院得像對其他議案一樣,提出或同意修正案。  眾議院和參議院通過的每一議案,在成為法律前須送交合眾國總統。總統如批准該議案,即應簽署;如不批准,則應將該議案同其反對意見退回最初提出該議案的議院。該院應特此項反對見詳細載入本院會議記錄並進行覆議。如經覆議後,該院三分之二議員同意通過該議案,該議案連同反對意見應一起送交另一議院,並同樣由 該院進行覆議,如經該院三分之二議員贊同,該議案即成為法律。但在所有這類情況下,兩院表決都由贊成票和反對票決定;對該議案投贊成票和反對票的議員姓名應分別載入每一議院會議記錄。如任何議案在送交總統後十天內(星期日除外)未經總統退回,該議案如同總統已簽署一樣,即成為法律,除非因國會休會而使該議案不能退回,在此種情況下,該議案不能成為法律。 凡須由參議院和眾議院一致同意的每項命令、決議或表決(關於休會問題除外),須送交合眾國總統,該項命令、決議或表決在生效前,須由總統批准,如總統不批准,則按照關於議案所規定的規則和限制,由參議院和眾議院三分之二議員重新通過。第八款 國會有權: 規定和徵收直接稅、進口稅、捐稅和其他稅,以償付國債、提供合眾國共同防務和公共福利,但一切進口稅、捐稅和其他稅應全國統一; 以合眾國的信用借款;管制同外國的、各州之間的和同印第安部落的商業; 制定合眾國全國統一的歸化條例和破產法; 鑄造貨幣,厘定本國貨幣和外國貨幣的價值,並確定度量衡的標準; 規定有關偽造合眾國證券和通用貨幣的罰則;設立郵政局和修建郵政道路; 保障著作家和發明家對各自著作和發明在限定期限內的專有權利,以促進科學和工藝的進步; 設立低於最高法院的法院; 界定和懲罰在公海上所犯的海盜罪和重罪以及違反國際法的犯罪行為;宣戰,頒發擄獲敵船許可狀,制定關於陸上和水上捕獲的條例; 招募陸軍和供給軍需,但此項用途的撥款期限不得超過兩年; 建立和維持一支海軍; 制定治理和管理陸海軍的條例;規定徵召民兵,以執行聯邦法律、鎮壓叛亂和擊退入侵; 規定民兵的組織、裝備和訓練,規定用來為合眾國服役的那些民兵的管理,但民兵軍官的任命和按國會規定的條例訓練民兵的權力,由各州保留;對於由某些州讓與合眾國、經國會接受而成為合眾國政府所在地的地區(不得超過十平方英里),在任何情況下都行使獨有的立法權;對於經州議會同意、由合眾國 在該州購買的用於建造要塞、彈藥庫、兵工廠、船塢和其他必要建築物的一切地方,行使同樣的權力;以及制定為行使上述各項權力和由本憲法授予合眾國政府或其任何部門或官員的一切其他權力所必要和適當的所有法律。 第九款 現有任何一州認為得准予入境之人的遷移或入境,在一千八百零八年以前,國會不得加以禁止,但對此種人的入境,每人可征不超過十美元的稅。不得中止人身保護狀的特權,除非發生叛亂或入侵時公共安全要求中止這項特權。不得通過公民權利剝奪法案或追溯既往的法律。 [除依本憲法上文規定的人口普查或統計的比例,不得徵收人頭稅或其他直接稅。] 對於從任何一州輸出的貨物,不得徵稅。 任何商業或稅收條例,都不得給予一州港口以優惠於他州港口的待遇;開往或開出一州的船舶,不得被強迫在他州入港、出港或納稅。除根據法律規定的撥款外,不得從國庫提取款項。一切公款收支的定期報告書和帳目,應不時予以公佈。 合眾國不得授予貴族爵位。凡在合眾國屬下擔任任何有薪金或有責任的職務的人,未經國會同意,不得從任何國王、君主或外國接受任何禮物、俸祿、官職或任何一種爵位。第十款 任何一州都不得:締結任何條約,參加任何同盟或邦聯;頒發捕獲敵船許可狀;鑄造貨幣;發行紙幣;使用金銀幣以外的任何物品作為償還債務的貨幣;通過任何公民權利剝奪法案、追溯既往的法律或損害契約義務的法律;或授予任何貴族爵位。任何一州,未經國會同意,不得對進口貨或出口貨徵收任何稅款,但為執行本州檢查法所絕對必需者除外。任何一州對進口貨或出口貨所征全部稅款的純收益供合眾國國庫使用;所有這類法律得由國會加以修正和控制。任何一州,未經國會同意,不得徵收任何船舶噸位稅,不得在和平時期保持軍隊或戰艦,不得與他州或外國締結協定或盟約,除非實際遭到入侵或遇刻不容緩的緊迫危險時不得進行戰爭。Article two of the United States Constitution: 第一款 行政權屬于美利堅合眾國總統。總統任期四年,副總統的任期相同。總統和副總統按以下方法選舉;每個州依照該州議會所定方式選派選舉人若干人,其數目同該州在國會應有的參議員和眾議員總人數相等。但參議員或眾議員,或在合眾國屬下擔任有責任或有薪金職務的人,不得被選派為選舉人。 [選舉人在各自州內集會,投票選舉兩人,其中至少有一人不是選舉人本州的居民。選舉人須開列名單,寫明所有被選人和每人所得票數;在該名單上簽名作證,將封印後的名單送合眾國政府所在地,交參議院議長收。參議院議長在參議院和眾議院全體議員面前開拆所有證明書,然後計算票數。得票最多的人,如所得票數超過 所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為總統。如獲得此種過半數票的人不止一人,且得票相等,眾議院應立即投票選舉其中一人為總統。如無人獲得過半數票;該院應以同樣方式從名單上得票最多的五人中選舉一人為總統。但選舉總統時,以州為單位計票,每州代表有一票表決權;三分之二的州各有一名或多名眾議員出席,即構成選 舉總統的法定人數,選出總統需要所有州的過半數票。在每種情況下,總統選出後,得選舉人票最多的人,即為副總統。但如果有兩人或兩人以上得票相等,參議院應投票選舉其中一人為副總統。] 國會得確定選出選舉人的時間和選舉人投票日期,該日期在全合眾國應為同一天。 無論何人,除生為合眾國公民或在本憲法採用時已是合眾國公民者外,不得當選為總統;凡年齡不滿三十五歲、在合眾國境內居住不滿十四年者,也不得當選為總統。 [如遇總統被免職、死亡、辭職或喪失履行總統權力和責任的能力時,總統職務應移交副總統。國會得以法律規定在總統和副總統兩人被免職、死亡、辭職或喪失任職能力時,宣佈應代理總統的官員。該官員應代理總統直到總統恢復任職能力或新總統選出為止。] 總統在規定的時間,應得到服務報酬,此項報酬在其當選擔任總統任期內不得增加或減少。總統在任期內不得接受合眾國或任何一州的任何其他俸祿。總統在開始執行職務前,應作如下宣誓或代誓宣言:“我莊嚴宣誓(或宣言)我一定忠實執行合眾國總統職務,竭盡全力維護、保護和捍衛合眾國憲法”。策二款 總統是合眾國陸軍、海軍和徵調為合眾國服役的各州民兵的總司令。他得要求每個行政部門長官就他們各自職責有關的任何事項提出書面意見。他有權對危害合眾國的犯罪行為發佈緩刑令和赦免令,但彈劾案除外。總統經諮詢參議院和取得其同意有權締結條約,但須經出席參議員三分之二的批准。他提名,並經諮詢參議院和取得其同意,任命大使、公使和領事、最高法院法官 和任命手續未由本憲法另行規定而應由法律規定的合眾國所有其他官員。但國會認為適當時,得以法律將這類低級官員的任命權授予總統一人、法院或各部部長。總統有權委任人員填補在參議院休會期間可能出現的官員缺額,此項委任在參議院下期會議結束時滿期。 第三款 總統應不時向國會報告聯邦情況,並向國會提出他認為必要和妥善的措施供國會審議。在非常情況下,他得召集兩院或任何一院開會。如遇兩院對休會時間有意見分歧時,他可使兩院休會到他認為適當的時間。他應接見大使和公使。他應負責使法律切實執行,並委任合眾國的所有官員。 第四款 總統、副總統和合眾國的所有文職官員,因叛國、賄賂或其他重罪和輕罪而受彈劾並被定罪時,應予免職。         Article three of the United States Constitution: 第一款 合眾國的司法權,屬於最高法院和國會不時規定和設立的下級法院。最高法院和下級法院的法官如行為端正,得繼續任職,並應在規定的時間得到服務報酬,此項報酬在他們繼續任職期間不得減少。第二款 司法權的適用範圍包括:由於本憲法、合眾國法律和根據合眾國權力已締結或將締結的條約而產生的一切普通法的和衡平法的案件;涉及大使、公使和領事的一切案 件;關於海事法和海事管轄權的一切案件;合眾國為一方當事人的訴訟;兩個或兩個以上州之間的訴訟;[一州和他州公民之間的訴訟;]不同州公民之間的訴 訟;同州公民之間對不同州讓與土地的所有權的訴訟;一州或其公民同外國或外國公民或國民之間的訴訟。涉及大使、公使和領事以及一州為一方當事人的一切案件,最高法院具有第一審管轄權。對上述所有其他案件,不論法律方面還是事實方面,最高法院具有上訴審管轄權,但須依照國會所規定的例外和規章。除彈劾案外,一切犯罪由陪審團審判;此種審判應在犯罪發生的州內舉行;但如犯罪不發生在任何一州之內,審判應在國會以法律規定的一個或幾個地點舉行。 第三款 對合眾國的叛國罪只限於同合眾國作戰,或依附其敵人,給予其敵人以幫助和鼓勵。無論何人,除根據兩個證人對同一明顯行為的作證或本人在公開法庭上的供認,不得被定為叛國罪。國會有權宣告對叛國罪的懲罰,但因叛國罪而剝奪公民權,不得造成血統玷污,除非在被剝奪者在世期間,也不得沒收其財產。         Article four of the United States Constitution: 第一款 每個州對於他州的公共法律、案卷和司法程式,應給予充分信任和尊重。國會得以一般法律規定這類法律、案卷和司法程式如何證明和具有的效力。第二款 每個州的公民享有各州公民的一切特權和豁免權。 在任何一州被控告犯有叛國罪、重罪或其他罪行的人,逃脫法網而在他州被尋獲時,應根據他所逃出之州行政當局的要求將他交出,以便解送到對犯罪行為有管轄權的州。 [根據一州法律須在該州服勞役或勞動的人,如逃往他州,不得因他州的法律或規章而免除此種勞役或勞動,而應根據有權得到此勞役或勞動之當事人的要求將他交出。] 第三款 新州得由國會接納加入本聯邦;但不得在任何其他州的管轄範圍內組成或建立新州;未經有關州議會和國會的同意,也不得合併兩個或兩個以上的州或幾個州的一部分組成新州。國會對於屬於合眾國的領土或其他財產,有權處置和制定一切必要的條例和規章。對本憲法條文不得作有損于合眾國或任何一州的任何權利的解釋。 第四款 合眾國保證本聯邦各州實行共和政體,保護每州免遭入侵,並應州議會或州行政長官(在州議會不能召開時)的請求平定內亂。        Article five of the United States Constitution: 國會在兩院三分之二議員認為必要時,應提出本憲法的修正案,或根據各州三分之二州議會的請求,召開制憲會議提出修正案。不論哪種方式提出的修正案,經各州四分之三州議會或四分之三州制憲會議的批准,即實際成為本憲法的一部分而發生效力;採用哪種批准方式,得由國會提出建議。但[在一千八百零八年以前制定的修正案,不得以任何形式影響本憲法第一條第九款第一項和第四項]任何一州,不經其同意,不得被剝奪它在參議院的平等投票權。          Article six of the United States Constitution: 本憲法採用前訂立的一切債務和承擔的一切義務,對於實行本憲法的合眾國同邦聯時期一樣有效。 本憲法和依本憲法所制定的合眾國法律,以及根據合眾國的權力已締結或將締結的一切條約,都是全國的最高法律;每個州的法官都應受其約束,即使州的憲法和法律中有與之相抵觸的內容。上述參議員和眾議員,各州州議會議員,以及合眾國和各州所有行政和司法官員,應宣誓或作代誓宣言擁護本憲法;但決不得以宗教信仰作為擔任合眾國屬下任何官職或公職的必要資格。          Article seven of the United States Constitution: 經九個州制憲會議的批准,即足以使本憲法在各批准州成立。本憲法于耶酥紀元1787年,即美利堅合眾國獨立後第十二年的九月十七日,經出席各州在制憲會議上一致同意後制定。我們謹在此簽名作證。簽字人:           主席、維吉尼亞州代表喬治•華盛頓新罕布什爾州 約翰•蘭登         尼古拉斯•吉爾曼麻塞諸塞州 納旦尼爾•戈勒姆       魯弗斯•金康涅狄格州 威廉•撒母耳•詹森      羅傑•謝爾曼紐約州 亞歷山大•漢密爾頓 新澤西州 威廉•利文斯頓        威廉•派特森 大衛•布里爾利        喬納森•戴頓 賓夕法尼亞州 本傑明•佛蘭克林       湯瑪斯•菲茨西蒙斯 湯瑪斯•米夫林        賈雷德•英格索爾 羅伯特•莫里斯        詹姆斯•威爾遜 喬治•克萊默        古•莫里斯 德拉瓦州 喬治•裡德         理查•巴西特 小岡寧•貝德福德雅各•布魯姆        約翰•迪金遜馬里蘭州 詹姆斯•麥克亨利       丹尼爾•卡羅爾聖托馬斯•詹尼弗的丹尼爾 維吉尼亞州 約翰•布雷爾        小詹姆斯•麥迪森 北卡羅來納州 威廉•布朗特        休•威廉森 理查•多布斯•斯佩特南卡羅來納州 約翰•拉特利奇        查理斯•平克尼 查理斯•科茨沃斯•平克尼     皮爾斯•巴特勒 佐治亞州 威廉•費尤         亞伯拉罕•鮑德溫 證人:威廉•傑克遜,秘書按照原憲法第五條、由國會提出並經各州批准、增添和修改美利堅合眾國憲法的條款Amendments to the United States Constitution:(憲法修正案)(注:括弧內為參考譯文)前十條修正案於1789925日提出,17911215日被十三個州批准生效,被稱為United States Bill of Rights (權利法案),如下:Amendment 1 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.(國會不得制定關於下列事項的法律:確立國教或禁止信教自由;剝奪言論自由或出版自由;或剝奪人民和平集會和向政府請願伸冤的權利。)Amendment 2:A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (一支管理良好的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,因此人民持有和攜帶武器的權利不得侵犯。) Amendment 3:No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. (未經房主同意,士兵平時不得駐紮在任何住宅;除依法律規定的方式,戰時也不得駐紮。)        Amendment 4:The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (人民的人身、住宅、文件和財產不受無理搜查和扣押的權利,不得侵犯。除依據可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保證,並詳細說明搜查地點和扣押的人或物,不得發出搜查和扣押狀。)    Amendment 5:No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. (無論何人,除非根據大陪審團的報告或起訴書,不受死罪或其他重罪的審判,但發生在陸、海軍中或發生在戰時或出現公共危險時服役的民兵中的案件除外。任何人不得因同一犯罪行為而兩次遭受生命或身體的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自證其罪;不經正當法律程式,不得被剝奪生命、自由或財產。不給予公平賠償,私 有財產不得充作公用。) Amendment 6:In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.(在一切刑事訴訟中,被告有權由犯罪行為發生地的州和地區的公正陪審團予以迅速和公開的審判,該地區應事先已由法律確定;得知控告的性質和理由;同原告證人對質;以強制程式取得對其有利的證人;並取得律師幫助為其辯護。)Amendment 7: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.(在習慣法的訴訟中,其爭執價額超過二十美元,由陪審團審判的權利應受到保護。由陪審團裁決的事實,合眾國的任何法院除非按照習慣法規則,不得重新審查。)Amendment 8: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. (不得要求過多的保釋金,不得處以過重的罰金,不得施加殘酷和非常的懲罰。)Amendment 9:  The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.(本憲法對某些權利的列舉,不得被解釋為否定或輕視由人民保留的其他權利。)Amendment 10: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. (憲法未授予合眾國、也未禁止各州行使的權力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。)另外還有十七條修正案,分列如下: Amendment 11: Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.(合眾國的司法權,不得被解釋為適用於由他州公民或任何外國公民或國民對合眾國一州提出的或起訴的任何普通法或衡平法的訴訟。)Amendment 12: Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.(選舉人在各自州內集會,投票選舉總統和副總統,其中至少有一人不是選舉人本州的居民。選舉人須在選票上寫明被選為總統之人的姓名,並在另一選票上寫明校選為副總統之人的姓名。選舉人須將所有被選為總統之人和所有被選為副總統之人分別開列名單,寫明每人所得票數;在該名單上簽名作證,將封印後的名單送合眾國 政府所在地,交參議院議長收。參議院議長在參議院和眾議院全體議員面前開拆所有證明書,然後計算票數。獲得總統選票最多的人,如所得票數超過所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為總統。如無人獲得這種過半數票,眾議院應立即從被選為總統之人名單中得票最多的但不超過三人中間,投票選舉總統。但選舉總統時,以州為單 位計票,每州代表有一票表決權。三分之二的州各有一名或多名眾議員出席,即構成選舉總統的法定人數,選出總統需要所有州的過半數票。[當選舉總統的權力轉 移到眾議院時,如該院在次年三月四日前尚未選出總統,則由副總統代理總統,如同總統死亡或憲法規定的其他喪失任職能力的情況一樣。]得副總統選票最多的 人,如所得票數超過所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為副總統。如無人得過半數票,參議院應從名單上得票最多的兩人中選舉副總統。選舉副總統的法定人數由參議員總數的三分之二構成,選出副總統需要參議員總數的過半數票。但依憲法無資格擔任總統的人,也無資格擔任合眾國副總統。)Amendment 13: Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. (第一款 在合眾國境內受合眾國管轄的任何地方,奴隸制和強制勞役都不得存在,但作為對於依法判罪的人的犯罪的懲罰除外; 第二款國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 14: Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.Section 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.( 第一款 所有在合眾國出生或歸化合眾國並受其管轄的人,都是合眾國的和他們居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或實施限制合眾國公民的特權或豁免權的任何法律;不經正當法律程式,不得剝奪任何人的生命、自由或財產;在州管轄範圍內,也不得拒絕給予任何人以平等法律保護。第二款 眾議員名額,應按各州人口比例進行分配,此人口數包括一州的全部人口數,但不包括未被徵稅的印第安人。但在選舉合眾國總統和副總統選舉人、國會眾議員、州 行政和司法官員或州議會議員的任何選舉中,一州的[年滿二十一歲]並且是合眾國公民的任何男性居民,除因參加叛亂或其他犯罪外,如其選舉權道到拒絕或受 到任何方式的限制,則該州代表權的基礎,應按以上男性公民的人數同該州年滿二十一歲男性公民總人數的比例予以削減。 第三款 無論何人,凡先前曾以國會議員、或合眾國官員、或任何州議會議員、或任何州行政或司法官員的身份宣誓維護合眾國憲法,以後又對合眾國作亂或反叛,或給予合眾國敵人幫助或鼓勵,都不得擔任國會參議員或眾議員、或總統和副總統選舉人,或擔任合眾國或任何州屬下的任何文職或軍職官員。但國會得以兩院各三分之二的 票數取消此種限制。第四款 對於法律批准的合眾國公共債務,包括因支付平定作亂或反叛有功人員的年金和獎金而產生的債務,其效力不得有所懷疑。但無論合眾國或任何一州,都不得承擔或 償付因援助對合眾國的作亂或反叛而產生的任何債務或義務,或因喪失或解放任何奴隸而提出的任何賠償要求;所有這類債務、義務和要求,都應被認為是非法和無效的。第五款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條規定。)Amendment 15: Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  (第一款 合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因種族、膚色或以前是奴隸而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 16: Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.( 國會有權對任何來源的收入規定和徵收所得稅,無須在各州按比例進行分配,也無須考慮任何人口普查或人口統計。)Amendment 17: Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.( 合眾國參議院由每州人民選舉的兩名參議員組成,任期六年;每名參議員有一票表決權。每個州的選舉人應具備該州州議會人數最多一院選舉人所必需的資格。任何一州在參議院的代表出現缺額時,該州行政當局應發佈選舉令,以填補此項缺額。但任何一州的議會,在人民依該議會指示舉行選舉填補缺額以前,得授權本州行政長官任命臨時參議員。本條修正案不得作如此解釋,以致影響在本條修正案作為憲法的一部分生效以前當選的任何參議員的選舉或任期。)Amendment 18: Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.(第一款 本條批准一年後,禁止在合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土內釀造、出售和運送作為飲料的致醉酒類;禁止此類酒類輸入或輸出合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土。第二款 國會和各州都有權以適當立法實施本條。 第三款 本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由各州議會按本憲法規定批准為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。)Amendment 19: Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.( 合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因性別而校合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 20: Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.Section 1. The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.( 第一款 總統和副總統的任期應在本條未獲批准前原定任期屆滿之年的一月二十日正午結束,參議員和眾議員的任期在本條未獲批准前原定任期屆滿之年的一月三日正午結束,他們繼任人的任期在同時開始。國會每年至少應開會一次,除國會以法律另訂日期外,此會議在一月三日正午開始。 如當選總統在規定總統任期開始的時間已經死亡,當選副總統應成為 總統。如在規定總統任期開始的時間以前,總統尚未選出,或當選總統不合乎資格,則當選副總統應代理總統直到一名總統已合乎資格時為止。在當選總統和當選副總統都不合乎資格時,國會得以法律規定代理總統之人,或宣佈選出代理總統的辦法。此人應代理總統直到一名總 統或副總統合乎資格時為止。國會得以法律對以下情況作出規定:在選舉總統的權利轉移到眾議院時,而可被該院選為總統的人中有人死亡;在選舉副總統的權利轉移到參議院時,而可被該院選為副總統的人中有人死亡。第五款 第一款和第二款應在本條批准以後的十月十五日生效。 第六款 本條除非在其提交各州之日起七年以內,自四分之三州議會批准為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。)Amendment 21: Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.  (第一款 美利堅合眾國憲法修正案第十八條現予廢除。在合眾國任何州、領地或屬地內,凡違反當地法律為在當地發貨或使用而運送或輸入致醉酒類,均予以禁止。 本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由各州制憲會議依本憲法規定批准為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。)Amendment 22: Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. (無論何人,當選擔任總統職務不得超過兩次;無論何人,在他人當選總統任期內擔任總統職務或代理總統兩年以上,不得當選擔任總統職務一次以上。但本條不適用於在國會提出本條時正在擔任總統職務的任何人;也不妨礙本條在一屆總統任期內生效時正在擔任總統職務或代理總統的任何人,在此屆任期結束前繼續擔任總統職 務或代理總統。本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由四分之三州議會批准為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。)Amendment 23: Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ( 第一款 合眾國政府所在的特區,應依國會規定方式選派:一定數目的總統和副總統選舉人,其人數如同特區是一個州一樣,等於它在國會有權擁有的參議員和眾議員人數的總和,但不得超過人口最少之州的選舉人人數。他們是在各州所選派的舉人以外增添的人,但為了選舉總統和副總統的目的,應被視為一個州選派的選舉人;他們在 特區集會,履行第十二條修正案所規定的職責。第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 24: Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. (第一款 合眾國公民在總統或副總統、總統或副總統選舉人、或國會參議員或眾議員的任何預選或其他選舉中的選舉權,不得因未交納任何人頭稅或其他稅而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 25: Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.( 第一款 如遇總統被免職、死亡或辭職,副總統應成為總統。 第二款 凡當副總統職位出缺時,總統應提名一名副總統,經國會兩院都以過半數票批准後就職。第三款 凡當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱他不能夠履行其職務的權力和責任,直至他向他們提交一份相反的聲明為止,其權力和責任應由副總統作為代理總統履行。第四款 凡當副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其他機構成員的多數,向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任時,副總統應立即作為代理總統承擔總統職務的權力和責任。此後,當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱喪失能力的情況不存在時,他應恢復總統職務的權力和責任, 除非副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其它機構成員的多數在四天之內向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任。在此種情況下,國會應決定這一問題,如在休會期間,應為此目的在四十八小時以內集會。如國會在收到後一書面聲明後的二十一天以內,或如適逢 休會期間,則在國會按照要求集會以後的二十一天以內,以兩院的三分之二的票數決定總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任,副總統應繼續作為代理總統履行總統職務的權力和責任;否則總統應恢復總統職務的權力和責任。)Amendment 26: Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  (第一款 年滿十八歲和十八歲以上的合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因為年齡而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。)Amendment 27: Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992. No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.( 改變參議員和眾議員服務報酬的法律,在眾議員選舉舉行之前不得生效。)參考連結:http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.htmlhttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/美國憲法

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