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中共十八大黨章修正決議
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http://news.xinhuanet.com/18cpcnc/2012-11/14/c_113690949.htm

(十八大授权发布)中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会关于《中国共产党章程(修正案)》的决议

新华社北京11月14日电

中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会关于《中国共产党章程(修正案)》的决议

(2012年11月14日中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会通过)

中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会审议并一致通过十七届中央委员会提出的《中国共产党章程(修正案)》,决定这一修正案自通过之日起生效。

大会认为,十六大以来,以胡锦涛同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,坚持以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,根据新的发展要求,深刻认识和回答了新形势下实现什么样的发展、怎样发展等重大问题,形成了以人为本、全面协调可持续发展的科学发展观。科学发展观,是同马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想既一脉相承又与时俱进的科学理论,是马克思主义关于发展的世界观和方法论的集中体现,是马克思主义中国化最新成果,是中国共产党集体智慧的结晶,是党必须长期坚持的指导思想。大会一致同意在党章中把科学发展观同马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想一道确立为党的行动指南。大会要求全党同志更加深入地学习科学发展观,进一步增强贯彻落实科学发展观的自觉性和坚定性,不断完善贯彻落实科学发展观的体制机制,把科学发展观贯彻到我国现代化建设全过程、体现到党的建设各方面。

大会认为,中国特色社会主义道路,中国特色社会主义理论体系,中国特色社会主义制度,是党和人民长期奋斗、创造、积累的根本成就。全面建成小康社会,加快推进社会主义现代化,实现中华民族伟大复兴,必须坚定不移走中国特色社会主义道路。把中国特色社会主义制度同中国特色社会主义道路、中国特色社会主义理论体系一道写入党章,有利于全党深化对中国特色社会主义的认识、全面把握中国特色社会主义的内涵。大会强调,全党同志要倍加珍惜、长期坚持和不断发展党历经艰辛开创的这条道路、这个理论体系、这个制度,坚定道路自信、理论自信、制度自信,奋力夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利。

大会认为,建设生态文明,是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计。必须把生态文明建设放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程,坚持生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路,努力建设美丽中国,实现中华民族永续发展。大会同意将生态文明建设写入党章并作出阐述,使中国特色社会主义事业总体布局更加完善,使生态文明建设的战略地位更加明确,有利于全面推进中国特色社会主义事业。促进工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展,是我国经济社会发展面临的重大课题,是全面建成小康社会的一项重大战略举措;发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的人民民主,完善中国特色社会主义法律体系,是坚持走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路、积极稳妥推进政治体制改革、加强社会主义法治国家建设的客观需要;建设社会主义文化强国,加强社会主义核心价值体系建设,是推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣、提高国家文化软实力的必然要求;构建社会主义和谐社会,必须保障和改善民生,使发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,加强和创新社会管理。将这些内容写入党章,丰富了社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设的内容,对全党同志更加自觉、更加坚定地贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验、基本要求,全面推进社会主义市场经济、社会主义民主政治、社会主义先进文化、社会主义和谐社会、社会主义生态文明建设,团结带领全国各族人民不断夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利具有十分重要的作用。

大会认为,改革开放是强国之路,是新时期最鲜明的特点。我国过去30多年的快速发展靠的是改革开放,未来发展也必须坚定不移依靠改革开放。只有改革开放,才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义。把这方面内容写入党章,有利于全党更加深刻地认识坚持改革开放的重大意义,更加自觉、更加坚定地推进改革开放。

大会认为,十七大以来,随着党的建设实践发展,我们党对马克思主义执政党建设规律的认识不断深化,正视党面临的考验和风险,重视加强党的执政能力建设、先进性和纯洁性建设,整体推进党的思想建设、组织建设、作风建设、反腐倡廉建设、制度建设,全面提高党的建设科学化水平。根据实践发展,党的十八大提出建设学习型、服务型、创新型的马克思主义执政党的新要求。适应新的形势,全党要用邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观和党的基本路线统一思想、统一行动,切实做到求真务实,尊重党员主体地位,加强对主要领导干部的监督。大会同意把这些新成果、新认识、新要求充实到党章关于党的建设总体要求中,使党的建设的主线、总体布局、总体目标更加完善,有利于全面推进党的建设新的伟大工程。

大会认为,总结吸收近年来党的建设的成功经验,并与总纲部分的修改相衔接,对党章部分条文作适当修改十分必要。认真学习马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想和科学发展观,是广大党员应尽的义务;积极创先争优,组织党员认真学习马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想和科学发展观,是党的基层组织的基本任务;选拔干部要按照德才兼备、以德为先的原则,坚持五湖四海、任人唯贤;党要更加重视监督干部;党的各级领导干部要坚持原则,讲党性、重品行、作表率。把这些内容写入党章,有利于全党同志坚持党的指导思想、增强学习贯彻科学发展观的自觉性和坚定性;有利于更好坚持公道正派的用人作风、树立正确用人导向、提高选人用人公信度,促进干部健康成长;有利于推动干部队伍特别是主要领导干部进一步提高各方面素质,更好发挥表率作用。

大会要求,党的各级组织和全党同志高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想和科学发展观为指导,更好学习党章、遵守党章、贯彻党章、维护党章,坚持党要管党、从严治党,进一步加强党的执政能力建设、先进性和纯洁性建设,以改革创新精神全面推进党的建设新的伟大工程,全面提高党的建设科学化水平,坚定不移沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进,为全面建成小康社会而奋斗。

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BBC  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-20321603

NYT http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/11/14/world/asia/the-new-members-of-chinas-ruling-body.html?ref=asia

習近平 1953 (十九大時64) 太子黨  清華畢業,原任職福建、浙江、上海,曾任職軍委辦公廳

Xi Jinping has become China's new Communist Party chief, and is now certain to take over next year as the country's President as well.

He is a so-called "princeling", the privileged son of a former top leader, learning Chinese politics from an early age when his father was purged and he himself was sent to work in the countryside.

Mr Xi's close ties to the military and his support for state-owned industries suggest he is rather conservative.

Born in Beijing in 1953, Mr Xi studied chemical engineering at Tsinghua University before joining the Communist Party in 1974. He worked in Hebei, Fujian and Zhejiang provinces, before being named Shanghai party chief in 2007 and tasked with cleaning up a corruption scandal.

He has a reputation for straight-talking, telling officials in 2004: "Rein in your spouses, children, relatives, friends and staff, and vow not to use power for personal gain."

To many inside China, Mr Xi is less famous than his wife - the folk singer Peng Liyuan. The couple have a daughter who is reportedly studying at Harvard. Little is known about his personal life, beyond a liking for basketball and, according to a leaked US diplomatic cable, Hollywood war movies, possibly acquired during a brief stay in Iowa when he was a young man.

李克強(總理) 1955 (19大時62) 團派,北大法律畢業,原任職河南、遼寧

Li Keqiang's career has seen him rise from manual labourer on a rural commune to provincial party chief and now China's premier.

He has a reputation for caring about China's less well-off, perhaps the result of a modest upbringing.

He is close to President Hu Jintao, who he worked with in the party's youth league, and he takes over the premiership from Wen Jiabao. But his easy-going manner and consensual style has prompted some to question whether he is dogged enough to tackle the strong vested interests which dominate much of China's economy.

Born in 1955 in Anhui Province, Mr Li reportedly rejected his father's offer of a local party career, enrolling instead at Beijing's prestigious Peking University to study law. Mr Li was chosen as deputy party secretary for Henan province in 1998, and became China's youngest provincial governor a year later.

But his tenure in the rural and heavily-populated province was marked by a series of setbacks, including fires and the spread of HIV through contaminated blood, which could have ended his ambitions. He did a better job reviving Henan's economy, and then impressed many by his work in Liaoning, an industrial province hit hard by reforms to state-owned industry.

張德江(人大委員長) 1946 (19大時71),江派,金日成大學,交通運輸安全生產副總理,處理薄熙來,廣東強勢

Zhang Dejiang was chosen by China's leaders for their toughest assignment of 2012, taking over as party chief of Chongqing after the fall of Bo Xilai. It cemented his reputation as a trouble-shooter who could be relied on to manage a crisis, and suggested he was set for the very top.

While many of China's new leaders have dealings with the West, Mr Zhang is an expert on a China's oldest ally, North Korea, and even spent two years studying economics in Pyongyang.

Mr Zhang, son of a PLA major-general, started his party career on the North Korean border, before being moved to Zhejiang and then working as party secretary in Guangdong between 2002 and 2007.

His term of office was not free from controversy. When a deadly form of pneumonia - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) - broke out in the province in 2002, the government was slow to respond.

As party boss, Mr Zhang was heavily criticised. His tough stance towards protesters and journalists was also unpopular. He is not known to be a reformer, and opposed allowing businessmen to join the party. Mr Zhang was appointed vice-premier in 2008, with responsibilities including energy, telecommunications, and transportation.

俞正聲(政協) 1945 (19大時72),太子黨/江系,哈爾濱軍工大學,曾任工程師,與鄧樸方友好,父為江青前夫,原任職青島,湖北,上海。

Yu Zhengsheng is party chief of Shanghai, China's largest city. A "princeling" with close ties to both former president Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, he also has links to the late Deng Xiaoping's family.

Unusually, his political career survived his brother's defection to the US in the mid-1980s, possibly thanks to the backing of Deng's disabled son. Mr Yu's father was briefly married to Jiang Qing, who later became notorious as Madam Mao.

Mr Yu graduated from the Military Engineering Institute in Harbin, specialising in ballistic missiles, and worked in electronic engineering for almost two decades until the mid-1980s. He later worked as vice-mayor, mayor and party chief of the eastern city of Qingdao and was credited with helping launch two of China's best-known brands overseas - Tsingtao beer and Haier appliances.

Mr Yu prefers to travel in a simple car without a motorcade, and surrounds himself with few officials and bodyguards, it was revealed in leaked diplomatic cables from 2007. Mr Yu has talked about tensions between urban development and the environment.

"How China should live is a tough issue. China has achieved great economic success, albeit with many resulting problems, such as the widening income gap and the more strained human relationships," he said.

劉雲山(書記處,分管宣傳) 1947 (19大時70),團派  任職內蒙、新華社

Liu Yunshan, 55, is head of the party's propaganda department, the body which strictly controls the country's media and polices the internet.

He worked in Inner Mongolia for almost three decades from 1968, after being sent there as a young man to work in a commune. He later became a Xinhua news agency reporter, public relations specialist, and finally deputy party secretary.

Born in Xinzhou, Shanxi, he joined the party in 1971 and was a graduate of the Party School. He worked with President Hu Jintao at the party youth league and is seen as a close ally. Mr Liu's son, Liu Lefei, is a prominent private equity investor.

Now that he has been promoted to the standing committee, Mr Liu is almost certain to take over the propaganda portfolio. He is likely to maintain China's heavy-handed media censorship and intolerance of criticism, a system which sees thousands of people police internet content.

Mr Liu has expressed concern over the growing numbers of Chinese using online forums to criticise the government.

"It is impossible to control [the spread of information on the internet]," he said recently. "I think internet users should exchange information freely, but they should follow certain rules."

王岐山(紀委書記) 1948(19大時69),太子黨/朱鎔基人馬 西北大學歷史系  曾主管經濟  姚依林女婿  金融自由化

Wang Qishan is well known to Western leaders, a key figure in discussions about the global economy and China's economic links with the US. Henry Paulson, the former US treasury secretary, described him as 'decisive and inquisitive', and someone with a "wicked sense of humour".

He is often compared to his political mentor, former premier Zhu Rongji, because both men are seen as dynamic and ready to challenge the status quo. Both even share the same nickname, "fire brigade chief", because of their crisis management. Those characteristics led supporters to suggest Mr Wang would make a better premier than Li Keqiang.

Mr Wang is a "princeling", the son of a top official, and he is married to Yao Minshan, daughter of former vice-premier Yao Yilin. Born in Qingdao, Shandong, he studied history at Northwest University then worked as a researcher.

He joined the party relatively late, at age 35, and worked as a banker before being made mayor of Beijing in 2004. He took over at the height of the SARS crisis and was credited for a no-nonsense approach, enforcing a quarantine and working with the World Health Organisation, rather than trying to downplay the epidemic.

張高麗(第一副總理) 1946 (19大時71),江曾派,廈門大學經濟系,石油系。任職深圳市委書記,山東省長、天津市委書記  經濟自由化

Zhang Gaoli is party chief of Tianjin, a large and wealthy city east of Beijing.

Born in Fujian, he graduated from Xiamen University after studying statistics and economics. He spent the early part of his career working in the oil industry, before becoming an official in the southern province of Guangdong in the mid-1980s.

His career took off from 1998 as party boss of the southern boomtown of Shenzhen, across the border from Hong Kong.

While overseeing the city's development, he also established close ties with former President Jiang Zemin and his supporters, a relationship which helped ensure Mr Zhang's promotion to governor of the province of Shandong in 2002.

Mr Zhang has overseen ambitious - and expensive - plans to develop Tianjin as a financial centre. Little is known about his views or personal life.

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