美國也似乎只有紐約時報有他的訃聞，當然，還有MIT自己的網頁，美國政治學會會刊PS(即下文中所稱Political Science and Politics)稍後也該登出。白魯恂撰寫Foreign Affairs亞洲類書評，一直到今年9/10月號為止
Lucian W. Pye, Bold Thinker on Asia, Is Dead at 86
By DOUGLAS MARTIN
Lucian W. Pye, an influential political scientist who marshaled a piercing intellect, psychoanalytic insights and plain intuition to take startling new perspectives on area studies, particularly concerning China and other Asian nations, died on Sept. 5 in Boston. He was 86.
The immediate cause was pneumonia, said his daughter Virginia Pye, who added that his health had deteriorated after a fall in July.
As a Sinologist, Professor Pye advised the State Department and the National Security Council and was considered a peer of the great China experts of his generation like John K. Fairbank of Harvard. Professor Pye was a leader of the National Committee on United States-China Relations when it laid the groundwork for the American table tennis team to visit China in 1971, and he later served as acting chairman.
He advised Democratic presidential candidates, including Senators John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and Henry M. Jackson of Washington, urging a muscular foreign policy.
But Professor Pye was first and foremost an intellectual who wrote or edited 25 books and led his profession as president of the American Political Science Association in 1988-9. He was among the pioneers in the 1950s and ’60s in developing theories about how poor nations develop politically. In contrast to political scientists who seek universal, overarching explanations, he delved into the vagaries of cultures, countries and people in search of more individualized interpretations.
“He redirected political science away from rational models of political behavior and toward things that are harder to measure and understand,” said Richard Samuels, a political scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Professor Pye taught for 35 years.
“It was the beginning of what would be a very important moment in postwar social science,” Mr. Samuels continued.
So novel were Professor Pye’s intellectual forays that opposite reactions to them were not unusual. This was particularly true of “Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority,” which he wrote with his wife, Mary, and published in 1985. The book found commonalities — or, critics railed, flagrant stereotypes — in Asia’s disparate political cultures.
Howard Wriggins, writing in Political Science Quarterly, asked, “Who but Lucian Pye would be bold enough” to undertake such a mission?
Lucian W. Pye was born in Fenzhou, in Shanxi Province in northwest China, on Oct. 21, 1921, to Congregational missionaries. He became bilingual, although he lost much of his Chinese when he moved to Oberlin, Ohio, for his primary education, only to relearn it later. He graduated from Carleton College in 1943, then was a Marine intelligence officer in Asia.
He earned his Ph.D. from Yale in 1951, writing his dissertation on the attitudes underlying the warlord system of politics in China in the 1920s. His mentor, Gabriel A. Almond, who introduced him to the study of comparative politics, once recalled Mr. Pye as “generally leaving me a little breathless; he had so much energy and enthusiasm.”
In 1956, Professor Pye joined the M.I.T. Center for International Studies to teach in a new program that would soon develop into a full-fledged political science department.
Along with other social scientists trying to find better explanations for change than those offered by Marxism, he helped found the Committee on Comparative Politics of the Social Science Research Council. He used his research in Malaysia to suggest that communism’s appeal there came from insecurity over the pace of change.
His next project was Burma, now Myanmar, where he concluded that psychology was more important than economics in explaining development. In 1976, he extended this psychological approach to Mao Zedong, imagined in his crib, in a biography that argued that Mao became a rebel to recapture a sense of “infantile omnipotence.”
In a 1988 article about Professor Pye’s work in the journal Political Science and Politics, Donald L. M. Blackmer suggested such leaps of imagination were typical of him, writing, “Interpretation and generalization abound, often unsupported by the sorts of evidence most of us have been taught to look for.”
The upside, Dr. Blackmer said, was that Professor Pye could “explain the otherwise inexplicable.”
Professor Pye took many leadership roles, from work setting up a scholarly center in Hong Kong to posts on the Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Society and the Asian Foundation. Early in his career, he worked with other political scientists to free their field of academic constraints they perceived in the McCarthy period.
Professor Pye is survived by his wife of 63 years, the former Mary Waddill; his daughters Lyndy Pye of Northampton, Mass., and Virginia Pye of Richmond, Va.; his son, Chris, of Northampton; and three grandchildren.
Professor Pye was an early proponent of the Vietnam War. As it ended in 1975 with an American retreat, he was asked by The New York Times about plans to airlift children from South Vietnam. He spoke of both hawks and doves feeling profound guilt.
“Who is the orphan?” Professor Pye asked. “The children, or Vietnam?”