Poets, Peaceniks and Protesters: Meet China’s Leading Dissidents
TIME.com, Joe Jackson, 02/10/12
As Xi Jinping, the man widely touted to be China's next President, embarks on a trip to the U.S., Beijing's desire for political stability remains paramount. The past year has seen numerous crackdowns on dissent and arrests of Chinese activists. Last week, Zhu Yufu, a poet, was sentenced to seven years for "inciting subversion to state power." Meet Zhu and some of the other artists, activists and lawyers caught up in China's latest crackdown.
Zhu Yufu (朱虞夫) -- Joe Jackson
Status: Sentenced to seven years
Zhu was charged with “inciting subversion of state power” and sentenced to seven years. Authorities maintain that his 2011 poem, “It’s Time,” constituted a call for a Jasmine Revolution-style revolt. The 59-year-old already spent seven years in jail for helping to found the China Democracy Party and served another stint in confinement from 2007-09 after an alleged altercation with a police officer.
Chen Wei (陳衛) -- Courtney Subramanian
Occupation: Human rights activist
In December 2011, Chen, 42, was found guilty of “inciting subversion of state power” and sentenced to nine years in jail. He was accused of helping to mastermind a Chinese answer to the “Jasmine Revolution” and publishing essays about political reform. Chen was first jailed for his role in the 1989 Tiananmen Square student protests. He was released in 1991, but was soon back behind bars, serving five more years for “counter-revolutionary propaganda and incitement.”
Chen Guangcheng (陳光誠) -- Kate Springer
Status: Under house arrest
Blind since childhood and illiterate until he was 20, Chen Guangcheng earned the nickname “the barefoot lawyer” after teaching himself to be a human-rights attorney. The 40-year-old gained national and international attention for challenging the legality of forced abortions carried out under China’s one-child policy. After the case, Chen was sentenced to four years in prison on charges of “damaging property and organizing a mob to disturb traffic.” Chen and his family are kept under house arrest in the village of Dongshigu. Many high-profile visitors, including actor Christian Bale, have tried to reach Chen. They’ve all been turned away.
Chen Xi (陳西) -- Courtney Subramanian
Occupation: Political activist
Four days after Chen Wei’s conviction, Chen Xi was sentenced to 10 years in prison on charges of “inciting subversion of state power” for writing essays about political reform. He was previously jailed for supporting the Tiananmen protests in 1989, and also served a 10-year term from 1995 to 2006. Chen has been taken into custody multiple times in order to prevent him from coordinating human rights symposiums.
Gao Zhisheng (高智晟) -- Kate Springer
One of China’s most outspoken dissidents, Gao Zhisheng has repeatedly disappeared in mysterious circumstances. He is currently thought to be in detention in a Xinjiang prison for violating his three-year probation. In 2006, he was sentenced on subversion charges after he criticized the Chinese government and defended high-profile political and religious dissenters in court. Officials told Gao’s family the 45-year-old is undergoing a three-month “education” period. During one of his brief reappearances Gao told the Associated Press that Chinese security agents threatened, tortured and beat him regularly.
Li Tie (李鐵) -- Niharika Mandhana
Occupation: Human rights campaigner
In January 2012, Li Tie, 52, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for “subversion of state power.” Li is perhaps best known for his reform-minded essays, including “Human Beings’ Heaven Is Human Dignity.” Some of his work focuses on freedom of expression. According to the New York Times, Li has worked to rekindle the spirit of Lin Zhao, a student and dissident who was executed in the 1960s for her ‘counterrevolutionary’ criticism.
Liu Xiaobo (劉曉波) -- Niharika Mandhana
Occupation: Author and political activist
One of China’s foremost champions of human rights and political reform, Liu Xiaobo is the co-author of Charter ’08, a manifesto calling for democracy in China. Liu played a prominent role in the 1989 Tiananmen protests and was subsequently jailed. The 57-year-old activist and writer has since been imprisoned several times. In 2010, while serving an 11-year sentence, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his “his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China.”
Hu Jia / Zeng Jinyan (胡佳/曾金燕) -- Joe Jackson
Occupation: Rights activist
Hu Jia and Zeng Jinyan have campaigned for environmental protection and fought to protect people living with HIV/AIDS. Hu spent three-and-a-half years behind bars for “inciting subversion of state power” ahead of the 2008 Olympics. He was released from prison last year, but neither his campaigns, nor the government pressure, has abated. Last month, Beijing police raided the couple’s home, confiscating two laptops.
Shi Tao (師濤) -- Kate Springer
Shi Tao, a freelance writer and journalist, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for “illegally providing state secrets to foreign entities.” In 2004, Shi leaked a document to foreign media using a Yahoo! account. The item summarized government orders to news organizations, including instructions to downplay the 15th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre. Reporters Without Borders blasted Yahoo! for releasing Shi’s information to the state.
Tan Zuoren (譚作人) -- Courtney Subramanian
Occupation: Activist, environmentalist, former editor
A Chengdu court sentenced Tan Zuoren to five years in prison in February 2010, ostensibly for criticizing the government’s handling of the Tiananmen Square protests. But some human rights groups suspect it was due to his ongoing investigation into the deaths of children in schools that collapsed in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Tan, a well-known critic of the government, published online commentary questioning the total number of children who died, the quality of the school buildings and sought legal justice for parents of the victims.
Yu Jie (余杰) -- Niharika Mandhana
Status: In exile
This 38-year-old writer fled China last month. Before seeking exile in the United States, Yu spent several months under house arrest for writing a still-incomplete biography of his imprisoned friend Liu Xiaobo. The author said at a press conference in Washington D.C. that he had been verbally abused, beaten, tortured and kept under constant government surveillance. An outspoken critic of the government, Yu is best known for his book, “China’s Greatest Actor: Wen Jiabao,” a withering profile of China’s Premier.
Ai Weiwei (艾未未) -- Joe Jackson
Status: Free, but under surveillance
‘Who is Afraid of Ai Weiwei?’ asks a recent documentary about the larger-than-life Chinese artist and activist. China’s ruling party seems plenty scared. They detained the outspoken Ai for 81 days last year and reportedly interrogated him at least 50 times. Following his release, Ai was hit with a $2.4 million bill for back taxes and penalties. (He maintains that the charges were politically motivated.) The son of a revolutionary poet, Ai was an artistic consultant for the iconic Bird’s Nest Olympic stadium before running afoul of the authorities. He was a runner-up for TIME’s 2011 Person of the Year.
本文於 修改第 10 次