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神舟八號與天宮一號成功交會對接
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(本報訊)北京時間113淩晨136分,中國自行研製的神舟八號飛船與天宮一號目標飛行器在距地球343公里的軌道實現自動對接。為建設空間站邁出關鍵一步。天宮一號目標飛行器與神舟八號飛船成功實現首次交會對接,在突破和掌握空間交會對接技術上,中國又邁出了重要一步。

正在法國戛納出席二十國集團領導人第六次峰會的中共中央總書記、國家主席、中央軍委主席胡錦濤聞訊後,第一時間發來賀電。中共領導人吳邦國、溫家寶、李長春、習近平、李克強、賀國強、周永康等在北京航太飛行控制中心觀看交會對接實況。

淩晨時分,在距地面約343公里的交會對接軌道上,神舟八號飛船正以自主控制方式向天宮一號目標飛行器逐步靠近。123分,當神舟八號到達距天宮一號30的停泊點時,北京航太飛行控制中心就對接準備狀態進行最終確認。隨後,神舟八號以每秒0.2的相對速度向天宮一號緩緩靠攏。

201010.5……神舟八號與天宮一號的距離越來越近。經過接觸、捕獲、緩衝、校正、拉回等技術動作,神舟八號飛船啟動主動對接鉤,牢牢鎖住天宮一號目標飛行器上的被動對接鉤。136分,兩個航天器緊緊連接成一個組合體,以優美的姿態飛行在茫茫太空。整個對接過程由天宮一號和神舟八號上安裝的艙外攝像機拍攝下來,即時傳回地面,清晰呈現在人們眼前。

143分,載人航太工程總指揮常萬全宣佈:天宮一號、神舟八號首次交會對接取得圓滿成功!頓時控制中心大廳裡一片歡騰。

中共中央政治局委員、中央軍委副主席徐才厚現場宣讀了胡錦濤總書記發來的賀電。胡錦濤在賀電中說,欣悉天宮一號目標飛行器與神舟八號飛船成功實現首次交會對接,甚喜甚慰。我謹向全體參研參試人員表示熱烈的祝賀和誠摯的慰問。

胡錦濤指出,突破和掌握空間交會對接技術,對於推進我國載人航太工程「三步走」戰略至為關鍵。希望同志們進一步發揚載人航太精神,再接再厲,精益求精,頑強拼搏,團結合作,努力奪取交會對接任務全面勝利,為開創我國載人航太事業新局面作出更大貢獻。

吳邦國等走到操作控制臺前,同工作人員熱情握手,祝賀天宮一號與神舟八號交會對接成功,希望大家牢記胡錦濤總書記的囑託,再奪載人航太事業新勝利。

按照計畫,天宮一號與神舟八號組合體經過12天左右飛行,兩個航天器將分離,進行第二次交會對接試驗。此後,神舟八號飛船返回艙返回地面,天宮一號目標飛行器轉入長期運行管理,等待與神舟九號、神舟十號飛船進行交會對接。

 

一個最客觀的網站  http://www.herald-today.com/ 

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美、中應開啟太空合作 -- J. Johnson-Freese
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Will China overtake America in space?

 

Joan Johnson-Freese, Special to CNN, 06/20/12

 

(CNN) -- China's space plans are ambitious, incremental and extensive. Should Americans be worried that China will overtake us in both space exploration and military capability in space?

 

No, not yet.

 

This week, China successfully achieved its first manned space docking with the launch of the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft that carried two men and China's first female astronaut. Part one of China's Project 921, a 30-year plan for space exploration that was approved in 1992, is complete. This is progress, indeed.

 

Project 921 is the result of China's fear of being left behind in the development of space technology. Part one was about attaining human spaceflight. Part two -- which is where China is now -- focuses on testing advanced technologies, like maneuvering and docking. Part three envisions a large (about 20 tons, the size of Skylab) space station.

 

A manned mission to the moon was never included in the plan and has only recently become a topic of discussion in China. When talks do come up of putting a Chinese on the moon as early as 2016, they can rile U.S. officials and engender international prestige for China, especially as the U.S. space program appears to be floundering.

 

But China is not overtaking the United States in space. It is, however, advancing. The execution of China's space program has led to "tortoise and hare" comparisons with the United States.

 

During the Apollo phase, the United States advanced very quickly, launching many missions which culminated in reaching the moon by a decade's end. In contrast, China launches a mission about every two years, but takes large steps with each one and has a much longer timeline for achieving its goals. What China has that the United States lacks -- and what may give the Chinese an advantage over the long run -- is patience.

 

China's path to space is not without obstacles, though. Launching their large space station will require a new heavy lift vehicle, the Long March 5, which is still in development and behind schedule. And China's ambitions do not come with an unlimited budget, even though it has already spent billions.

 

In response, the U.S. needs to keep moving forward.

 

The Obama administration's decision to redirect the civilian space program to a private-public partnership is smart. A space exploration program fully funded by the government is unsustainable. The recent use of the privately developed Flacon-9/Dragon duo to resupply the International Space Station indicates that if the private sector can handle low-Earth orbit needs, then over time NASA can focus its limited budget on new, more distant exploration goals.

 

But Americans are not known for patience. The real danger for the United States is in ceding space exploration and leadership to China because it lacks the political will to proceed at a steady, supportable pace. This will have broad strategic implications.

 

Complicating the issue is the largely dual-use nature of space technology, which can be used for both civilian and military purposes. And it is difficult to discern whether military space assets are intended for offense or defense. The difference between a rocket and a missile is considerable in political considerations, but nominal in terms of technology. A country that possesses missile defense could also use it as a weapon.

 

So what can be done if we need to protect our space assets? One thing is clear -- weapons are not the answer.

 

China's irresponsible 2007 anti-satellite weapon test exponentially increased the amount of space debris in orbit, which is dangerous to operating satellites. Space debris is now recognized by all countries (and militaries) as a threat to space assets.

 

An International Space Code of Conduct is being discussed in the United Nations. It would state what responsible spacefaring nations consider acceptable behaviors in space. Though legally nonbinding, it would be a first step toward maintaining the sustainability of the space environment for use by all.

 

The United States largely knows what space technology China possesses, but it doesn't know what China's intentions are. The United States should try to better understand China's space goals.

 

However, NASA is prohibited by law from working with China. This makes no sense. If one believes that China and the United States are not inherently enemies, then working together on space projects -- with technology transfer controls -- will benefit both countries. If one believes that China is inherently a threat to the United States, then the adage "keep your friends close and your enemies closer" comes to mind.

 

The script for U.S.-China relations -- and space relations in particular -- is constantly evolving. The United States can influence the direction, but only if we engage and persuade the Chinese to engage with us. It's one way of preventing a scenario of a galactic Wild West in which China has become the world's leader in space.

 

Editor's note: Joan Johnson-Freese is a professor of national security affairs at the Naval War College. She is the author of numerous books, including, most recently, "Heavenly Ambitions: America's Quest to Dominate Space" (University of Pennsylvania Press).

 

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/06/20/opinion/freese-china-space/index.html?hpt=op_t1



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神九與天一成功交會對接 -- A. Lai
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Historic Chinese space mission docks successfully

 

Alexis Lai, CNN, 06/18/12

 

(CNN) -- China's Shenzhou-9 spacecraft successfully docked with the orbiting Tiangong-1 space laboratory on Monday, completing the next step in the country's ambitious space mission.

 

This makes China the third country to complete a manned space docking, following the United States and Russia. The mission, which began on Saturday, also saw the country's first female astronaut go into space.

 

The three-person crew will stay in the space lab to conduct "scientific experiments, technical tests, and physical exercises," according to official state news agency, Xinhua.

 

Tiangong-1, a prototype for a full-fledged space station, was launched into space in September. The unmanned Shenzhou-8 successfully docked there two months later, in China's first space docking.

 

China has made rapid, steady strides in developing its space program over the last decade, such as sending its first astronaut into space, completing its first spacewalk, and launching two lunar orbiters.

 

The latest docking mission was one of the goals included in a government white paper issued in December, which outlined an ambitious five-year space exploration plan.

 

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/06/18/world/asia/china-space-docking/index.html



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天神成功二度對接 -- 何明國
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天神成功二度對接 神八17日落地

記者何明國, 旺報, 11/16/11

1420時,在北京航太飛行控制中心精確控制下,天宮一號與神舟八號成功進行第二次交會對接。按照計畫,兩個航天器再次構成的組合體將再飛行兩天後分離,神八將於17日晚返回地面。 

北京飛控中心副主任麻永平指出,這次試驗主要目的是檢驗組合體分離、飛船撤離功能和交會測量設備在陽照區的工作性能,並進行天宮一號與神舟八號第二次交會對接。試驗安排在飛船運行第216圈地面連續測控弧段進行,為充分考核光學測量設備在光照條件下的性能,組合體分離、飛船撤離和交會試驗大部分過程在陽照區進行,對接在陰影區完成。 

113日,天宮一號與神八首次交會對接。第一次對接,光學設備工作時間全部設置在地球的背面──陰影區,從而有效避免了太陽光對光學設備的干擾,以確保首次交會對接的成功。 

二次對接則是在光照區進行試驗。由於雜光干擾強烈,對測量設備敏感器的精度和相對導航的可靠性均會造成較大影響。為避免太陽直接照到光學設備的視場,在程式設計上也做了相應調整,從而保證對接機構的重複使用性能,以及交會對接設備在不同空間環境下正常運行。 

中國載人航太工程新聞發言人武平表示,明年將進行神九、神十與天宮一號的交會對接試驗,至少有一次是載人飛行。 

大陸希望在2020年之前組建一個空間站,這次對接是這一努力的重要組成部分。

 http://news.chinatimes.com/wantdaily/11052101/112011111600149.html



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