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Permaculture design? 永續生活設計 (樸門設計)
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什麼是Permaculture design? (在台灣常譯為永續生活設計或樸門設計) Permaculture這個字由澳洲的生態設計實踐家Bill Mollison所創,結合了永久持續的(permanent)與農耕(agriculture)、文化(culture)這幾個意涵。它是一門科學,也是藝術,提倡運用有效而適切的技術,以最接近自然的過程整合和連接土地固有的資源,藉此我們得以照顧地球,照顧土地,更照顧人的福祉。許多人誤以為Permaculture只是農藝技術,或是有機種植的一種方式而已。事實上,它是一種應用生態學,也是一套應用與整合各科學門的設計學。

什麼是樸門永續設計?
Permaculture is a design approach to create regenerative, sustainable systems. Envisioned over 30 years ago by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, from Australia, it has now spread to over 120 countries. Though its conception was as a land based system, its effectiveness has moved it into urban settings and to being applied in various social, political, and economic environments.
樸門永續設計是一種能創造永續且循環不息系統的設計方式。經過David Holmgren和Bill Mollison在澳洲發展了30年之後,如今樸門永續設計已經推廣到全世界120以上的國家。雖然樸門永續設計是以土地為基礎的設計系統,但隨後已漸漸地拓展到都市環境中,也應用到各種社會、政治和經濟環境等層面。
Permaculture was created through the synthesis of many design systems, with the emphasis on nature as the penultimate one. Similarly, the insights and value of traditional and indigenous practices and knowledge are acknowledged along with the necessity of adapting these with our current understandings and the appropriate technologies of today’s world. What Permaculture seeks to do is to create three-dimensional designs that are site specific and sustainable. By bringing together elements (orchard, water system, farmer, cow, etc.), techniques (organic framing, natural building, etc.) and strategies (microclimate, relative placement, etc.) a system is designed or altered based on regenerative relationships. These regenerative and beneficial relationships give a system complexity, three dimensionality, and thus, resiliency.
以仿效大自然的設計為基礎,樸門永續設計也融合了其他的設計系統。同樣地,此系統也巧妙的利用了傳統與原住民知識技術的洞見與價值,讓傳統和現代科技互助互補。透過完善的規劃系統,如元素(果園、水系統、農夫、及牛等),技術(有機農業、綠建築等),及策略(微氣候、相對位置等)結合後所產生的再生關係,樸門永續設計旨在創造出能適用於各式環境的三次元永續設計結構。也因為再生關係的複雜性、完整性和彈性,才能夠完善構成能靈活回應變化的永續設計。
The world can be looked at as the convergence of many different flows. From ‘natural’ (wind, water, soil, etc.) to human (social, resources, transportation, etc.) to invisible (economic, information, etc.) which interact and create patterns. These flows form our world. Recognizing this, Permaculture teaches Pattern Literacy and Pattern Application. This, along with Sector Analysis (site specific flow mapping), Zonation (a tool for structuring time) and other techniques and tools, Permaculture focuses on creating regenerative relationships that are the key to resilient, sustainable systems.
世界就像是眾多不同流動的合流點。大自然 (風、水、土等),人類 (社會、資源、交通等),及無形結構(政治、經濟、資訊等)之間的互動都會創造出不同流動模式,而世界就是以各式各樣的流動模式建立而成的。認知到這一點,樸門永續設計也教授模式語言與應用。除了運用模式設計與應用之外,樸門永續設計還會使用扇型分析(基地流動圖),區位劃分(一種組織時間的工具)和其他的技術和工具來創造有彈性的永續再生關係。
From its inception, Permaculture has quickly reached out to over one hundred and twenty countries where there are farms and sites that have successfully applied Permaculture’s ideas, techniques and strategies. As further testament to its applicability, Permaculture is now being applied in many urban and suburban areas. In many developed countries these applications hold much promise for dealing with the many issues associated with mass populations.
從初始的構想開創以來,世界上已經有一百二十多個國家的人在實踐樸門永續設計。不同的地點及農田都能成功的運用樸門設計的元素、技術及策略來創造出永續的農業系統。近年來,樸門設計系統也逐漸被運用在都市及郊區地區,而這也充分證實樸門永續設計的適用性。在眾多已開發國家的實踐後發現,樸門永續設計能有效的改善,甚至解決需多城市因人口過盛而產生的許多問題。
Permaculture in the last few years has been moving into the invisible structures. In the United States a Permaculture credit union has been formed and ‘green’ investment firms are using Permaculture principles and ideas to create resilient, sustainable investment systems. Environmentalists and social activists are using Permaculture to give depth and complexity to their approaches to many issues we are dealing with today. These applications are possible because Permaculture is a design system that focuses on relationship and not so much on object.
過去幾年,樸門永續設計更開始往意識性結構發展。在美國,「樸門永續設計信用合作社」已經成立,更有綠色經濟投資公司開始使用樸門永續設計的理念和原則來建立永續、有彈性的投資系統。處理現今人類問題的環保和社會主義者也開始使用樸門永續設計的思維來處理他們所面對的問題,為他們所採用的手法帶來更具有深度的意義。這般意識性的延伸之所以有發展的可能性,是因為樸門永續設計注重社會關係、型態與倫理多過於個體本身。
Permaculture is a multi-faceted, in depth design system that will help us create appropriate, site-specific designs that are both sustainable and regenerative.
樸門永續設計不但是一個多層面、深入的設計系統,它還能幫助我們為各種環境建立起適當且永續的再生設計。
Permaculture principles are a list of attitudes, approaches, and actions that are practical and not system specific. These along with certain tools and techniques allow for a holistic approach and interaction with any type of system. As a tool of analysis, it is an excellent way to look at existing programs, strategies, and interventions to assess their interactions, linkages, and success’. It is a way to reach an understanding of the various influences and flows involved in a system, be it self help groups, village, or organization. Second, it provides insights and principles by which to intervene or interact with a system. As there is neither a truly independent system, nor sterile ‘environment’ this aspect is of significant importance. Thirdly, as we have already stated, Permaculture is an excellent approach for designing resilient, site-specific systems, be it disaster preparedness, HIV/AIDS, or women’s empowerment.
樸門永續設計的原則是一系列的態度、方法、和行動。它們具有實踐性並且不被特定系統侷限,這也是為什麼樸門設計能有效率的運用工具及技術來和其他系統結合。它像是一個分析系統,能精準地評估現有工程、策略和措施,間接從跟他們的互動、相似度和成功案例中獲取經驗。樸門永續設計能有效分析及了解影響其他系統的因素。團體、組織及村落也都能利用它來自給自足。其次,它提供能順利和其他系統交涉的見解和原則。因為世上沒有一個真正獨立的系統,純淨自外於他物的環境更是不存在的。這更顯示此一特質的重要性。第三,正如前段已經指出,樸門永續設計是一個能配合具體制度的彈性系統,其中包括備災、艾滋病毒/艾滋病,或婦女權力。
It is important to understand that Permaculture is not so much about giving you new and improved ideas, techniques, and strategies, though there is some of that. What Permaculture does is allow for a deeper understanding of the situation at hand and, with its principles and strategies, a more holistic, effective way to interact with or design a system. What Permaculture offers are skills and principles by which we build our awareness of why or why not something was successful. Through this insight we can build on what is successful and modify others to become more successful.
大家必須了解,比起著重於推廣新知識及策略,樸門永續設計更注重用它的基礎與體制和已存在系統合併、改善,甚至設計出更完善的系統。它建立了一個系統的標準,規劃出可行與不可行的界線。讓我們可以已成功的設計做為基礎,並且幫助他人設計出更成功的系統。
Stepping up another level, Permaculture is an excellent way to weave together the different parts of an organization so that a unity and synergy can be created. In this way unforeseen benefits and ease will raise within the system.
樸門永續設計像是一個紡紗機,它把各種領域的長處巧妙的編織在一起,創造出協和完善的設計,而這也為系統本身帶來無限益處。

為什麼要在台灣推動Permaculture? 在校園:使土地恢復健康,創造更多生物的生存空間與微棲地、為孩子營造多元豐富且健康的的校園環境、增加食物自給的能力,減少食物運送所消耗的能源,提昇校園的自給能力,並培養孩子生活智慧。 在社區:除了校園之外,大地旅人也在社區推動這樣的理念,透過理論、操作並重的課程將實踐系統性的永續生活方式整合(例如:陽台與屋頂雨水回收設計、堆肥廁所系統、太陽能鍋、各式堆肥系統、覆蓋種植法,等)引入我們的日常生活,讓更多關心環境的朋友,將憂心化為行動,積極地面對環境惡化的問題。 我們所經營的永續生活設計網站,歡迎瀏覽!


生命就是一場奇妙的旅程,有歡笑有淚水,要把最美的人事物盡收眼底,豐富飢渴的深邃靈魂.
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