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美漢學家白魯恂病逝
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美漢學家白魯恂病逝

美國專攻中國政治的知名漢學家白魯恂(Lucian Pye),5日因肺炎病逝波士頓,享壽86。

白魯恂出生於中國陝西省汾州,擁有敏銳的觀察力,思考角度常別具一格,對政治採取精神分析的見解,曾在麻省理工學院任教35年。

白魯恂曾任美國國務院和國家安全會議顧問,亦是當代最富盛名的中國問題專家之一。任美中關係全國委員會主席期間,曾於1971年安排美國乒乓球隊訪問中國,為美中奠定了對話基礎。

紐約時報5日在訃聞欄報導,白魯恂的政治學最特別之處在於,多數政治學者從理性角度尋求普遍總體的解釋,他卻探究難以捉摸的文化、國家和人民,以搜尋更多個性化的詮釋。他亦是貧窮國家發展理論的先驅者。

他與妻子瑪麗共撰的「亞洲權力和政治:文化方面的權力」,1985年出版,書中歸納出亞洲各國不同政治文化共同點,並加以批評。國家安全委員會成員瑞金斯在「政治學季刊」寫道,「除了白魯恂,還有誰有此膽識?」

之後在緬甸研究中,他更發現,在國家發展理論上,心理學比經濟學更足以解釋領導者作為。1976年,他歸納毛澤東傳記中他成為叛軍的描述,以精神分析角度認為,這是「嬰兒全能」 (infantile omnipotence)現象,是毛想要找回在嬰兒床時期,自己對所在環境無所不能的回憶。

對於越南戰爭,他則是倡議者。1975年美國撤軍終戰時,白魯恂被委以空運越南兒童的任務。他觀察鷹派和鴿派,發現雙方都有深刻的罪惡感。

他以其特有的敏銳及膽識問道,「誰才是孤兒?」「是孩子,還是越南?」

【2008/09/14 聯合報

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取個漢名當漢人

陳青山 (2008-09-21)

http://www.zaobao.com/special/feature/pages/feature080921a.shtml

    

  美國專攻中國政治的知名漢學家白魯恂(Lucian W. Pye),95因肺炎病逝波士頓,享年86

  曾在麻省理工學院執教35年的白魯恂,和長期坐鎮哈佛大學的費正清(John King Fairbank),堪稱早期美國研究中國問題的兩大泰斗。費正清已於1991年去世。

  《紐約時報》在訃聞專欄報導,白魯恂治學最特別之處在于多數政治學者從理性角度尋求普遍總體的解釋,他卻探究難以捉摸的文化、國家和人民以尋求更多個性化的詮釋。他也是貧窮國家發展理論的先驅者。

  白魯恂還有一個獨到的心得來自他對緬甸的研究,他發現,在國家發展理論上,心理學比經濟學更足以解釋領導者的作為。

  費正清和白魯恂不只是公認的當代最負盛名的“中國通”,他們也是影響美國對華政策的白宮重要智囊,為尼克遜政府奠定了美中對話基礎。

  根據史料,在尼克遜當選後不久,費正清、白魯恂、鮑大可(A. Doak Barnett)、史華茲(Benjamin Schwartz)、傅高義(Ezra Vogel)等一批中國問題專家聯合向他提交一份備忘錄,就改善中美關係及為此採取的步驟與措施提出了看法。其中有一條建議:“您應該認真研究以下可能性:安排中國領導人與一個你所信任的人之間做秘密的——甚至便於公開否認的——談話。”

  果然,1971年,尼克遜便派遣國家安全事務助理基辛格秘密訪華,開展了複交之路。

  這幾位漢學家的成就不必在此贅述。這裏想談的是他們被人津津樂道的中文名。

  30幾年前我剛進報社當電訊翻譯,一開頭便想當然的把費正清的名字直譯為“費爾班克”。經總編輯提點才曉得他有個中文名。

  後來到美國念書,上比較政治學課,總算對兩位大師的理論略識皮毛。在舊書攤買到費正清1982年出版的自傳《心系中國:50年的回憶》(China Bound: A Fifty-Year Memoir),才知曉其中文名字的由來(書中還有許多當代漢學家的珍貴照片)。

  原來費正清1932年就到中國,在清華大學講授經濟史。他在北京認識了梁思成、林徽因夫婦並與他們成為密友。費正清這個中國名字就是梁思成替他取的。

  他的英文原名John King Fairbank一般譯為約翰·金·費爾班克,梁思成告訴他叫“費正清”好,意思是費氏正直清廉,而且“正”、“清”兩字又跟英文原名John King諧音,“使用這樣一個漢名,你真可算是一個中國人了。”(“Fei Cheng-ch'ing means 'Fei the upright and clear' and Cheng-ch'ing approximates the sound of John King. With such a name you might be a Chinese.”——見原著第224頁)。

  白魯恂的中文名只知道是他自己取的,但無可考據,猜想是他崇拜魯迅,或是他自謙天資愚魯、所以做人要誠信吧。

  兩位大師儒雅的中文名,讓我對許多漢學家的中文名產生興趣,也收集了不少他們取名的典故。

  說真的,漢學家們的中文名字,確有一些陽春白雪,極富品味的,簡直令人拍案叫絕,和值得身為華人的我們好好思量。

  不少漢學家的中文名包含了他們對中國,對中華文化的深摯感情,足以令本地許多連自己的中文名都寫不好的華人汗顏。

  有趣的是,好多“中國通”除了會說一口地道流利的中文和取了有品味的中文名之外,還娶了中國太太,當“中國女婿”。

  出身英國的耶魯大學史學家史景遷(Jonathan D. Spence),史是他的姓,景遷是因為他很“景”仰太史公司馬“遷”。史景遷的妻子是臺灣出生的學者金安平。

  諾貝爾文學獎評委中唯一精通中文的瑞典漢學家馬悅然(Nils Goran David Malmqvist),兩任妻子都是中國人。

  德國漢學家衛禮賢(Richard Wilhelm)的中文名,顯然是取自“禮賢下士”。

  普林斯頓大學儒家學者Frederick W. Mote,用《論語》裏的“克己復禮”命名,稱自己“牟複禮”。

  哥倫比亞大學的畢漢思(Hans Bielenstein),中文名有英文原名的諧音,還包含深深的傾慕思念漢文化的意思。

  被譽為當代歐洲三大漢學家之一的施舟人(Kristofer Schipper),因古代諸子百家中,老子是周人,莊子名叫莊周,故取其諧音“舟人”,同時包含有作為東西方文化的橋樑“渡人”的意思。

  長期執教于馬來亞大學的德國人傅吾康(Wolfgang Franke),是華僑歷史尤其是華僑碑銘專家。

  瑞典最傑出的漢學家高本漢(Bernhard Karlgren),以畢生精力研治中國文史,尤其致力於漢語音韻訓詁的探究。高本漢對自己的中文名音意雙關很自豪,曾經幽默地對中國現代語言學大師趙元任說:“我本是漢人!”

  哈佛大學東亞系主任包弼德(Pete K. Bol),是專門研究宋、元、明、清歷史的漢學家。他的中文名是留學臺灣期間,中文老師給他取的。

  有中國現當代文學“首席翻譯家”之稱,把老舍、巴金、蕭紅、馮驥才、莫言、蘇童、賈平凹、王朔等中國作家的作品介紹給西方的美國漢學家葛浩文(Howard Goldblatt),中文名也是他在臺灣的第一位中文老師為他取的。這位老師頗有先見之明,預知葛浩文將翻譯“浩如煙海的文章”。

  以收集中國春宮畫、房中術書籍,研究性學而享盛名的荷蘭漢學家高羅佩(Robert Hans Van Gulik)對中國文化的癡迷和造詣,從他的名字就可看出,他字忘笑(暗寓笑忘百慮),號芝台,連住所都取名“猶忘齋”和“吟月庵”。他的妻子是清代名臣張之洞的外孫女。

  高羅佩在20世紀40年代,把清初公案小說《武則天四大奇案》中唐朝名相狄仁傑屢破奇案的故事,譯成系列英文小說“Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee”,介紹給西方。

  哈佛大學漢學家宇文所安(Stephen Owen)的中文名用複姓。“宇文”是胡人姓,“所安”則出自《論語》的“觀其所由、察其所安”,名和姓加在一起,也有胡漢融合的意思。

  一般人只知唐詩三百首,宇文所安自稱讀過唐詩上萬首。1972年他26歲時以論文《韓愈與孟郊的詩》獲得博士學位。他也是中國女婿,61歲的他,娶了36歲的中國才女田曉菲。兩人現為哈佛同事。

  宇文所安有幾句話深得我心。他認為,古典文學應該是博雅教育,而非得研究和專攻中文系不可。他觀察到很多學生出了校門進了醫學、法律等專業領域,回頭卻發現當年選修的文化、文學課程,才是影響最深也是學到最多的。

  我國這幾年掀起雙文化課程熱,讓雙語強的學生通過浸濡課程,擴大視野,成為國家未來具有國際觀、學貫中西的雙語精英。雙文化課程東方文化部分以中國文化為主,除了中國文史哲之外,學生也學習有關中國現代社會,經濟與企業,市場概況,以及中國人處事之道等知識。學校也主辦翻譯等課程讓學生選修。

  這裏要奉勸修讀雙文化課程的學生,千萬不好以為自己會說會寫中文和略通中華文史就是半個“中國通”,而自告奮勇、隨隨便便替友族或外國朋友取中文名,搞不好讓人笑成“罕通”,還連累朋友每次報上中文名時,讓有識之士當成笑柄。

 

《聯合早報》

 

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美國也似乎只有紐約時報有他的訃聞,當然,還有MIT自己的網頁,美國政治學會會刊PS(即下文中所稱Political Science and Politics)稍後也該登出。白魯恂撰寫Foreign Affairs亞洲類書評,一直到今年9/10月號為止

Lucian W. Pye, Bold Thinker on Asia, Is Dead at 86

By DOUGLAS MARTIN

Lucian W. Pye, an influential political scientist who marshaled a piercing intellect, psychoanalytic insights and plain intuition to take startling new perspectives on area studies, particularly concerning China and other Asian nations, died on Sept. 5 in Boston. He was 86.

The immediate cause was pneumonia, said his daughter Virginia Pye, who added that his health had deteriorated after a fall in July.

As a Sinologist, Professor Pye advised the State Department and the National Security Council and was considered a peer of the great China experts of his generation like John K. Fairbank of Harvard. Professor Pye was a leader of the National Committee on United States-China Relations when it laid the groundwork for the American table tennis team to visit China in 1971, and he later served as acting chairman.

He advised Democratic presidential candidates, including Senators John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and Henry M. Jackson of Washington, urging a muscular foreign policy.

But Professor Pye was first and foremost an intellectual who wrote or edited 25 books and led his profession as president of the American Political Science Association in 1988-9. He was among the pioneers in the 1950s and ’60s in developing theories about how poor nations develop politically. In contrast to political scientists who seek universal, overarching explanations, he delved into the vagaries of cultures, countries and people in search of more individualized interpretations.

“He redirected political science away from rational models of political behavior and toward things that are harder to measure and understand,” said Richard Samuels, a political scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Professor Pye taught for 35 years.

“It was the beginning of what would be a very important moment in postwar social science,” Mr. Samuels continued.

So novel were Professor Pye’s intellectual forays that opposite reactions to them were not unusual. This was particularly true of “Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority,” which he wrote with his wife, Mary, and published in 1985. The book found commonalities — or, critics railed, flagrant stereotypes — in Asia’s disparate political cultures.

Howard Wriggins, writing in Political Science Quarterly, asked, “Who but Lucian Pye would be bold enough” to undertake such a mission?

Lucian W. Pye was born in Fenzhou, in Shanxi Province in northwest China, on Oct. 21, 1921, to Congregational missionaries. He became bilingual, although he lost much of his Chinese when he moved to Oberlin, Ohio, for his primary education, only to relearn it later. He graduated from Carleton College in 1943, then was a Marine intelligence officer in Asia.

He earned his Ph.D. from Yale in 1951, writing his dissertation on the attitudes underlying the warlord system of politics in China in the 1920s. His mentor, Gabriel A. Almond, who introduced him to the study of comparative politics, once recalled Mr. Pye as “generally leaving me a little breathless; he had so much energy and enthusiasm.”

In 1956, Professor Pye joined the M.I.T. Center for International Studies to teach in a new program that would soon develop into a full-fledged political science department.

Along with other social scientists trying to find better explanations for change than those offered by Marxism, he helped found the Committee on Comparative Politics of the Social Science Research Council. He used his research in Malaysia to suggest that communism’s appeal there came from insecurity over the pace of change.

His next project was Burma, now Myanmar, where he concluded that psychology was more important than economics in explaining development. In 1976, he extended this psychological approach to Mao Zedong, imagined in his crib, in a biography that argued that Mao became a rebel to recapture a sense of “infantile omnipotence.”

In a 1988 article about Professor Pye’s work in the journal Political Science and Politics, Donald L. M. Blackmer suggested such leaps of imagination were typical of him, writing, “Interpretation and generalization abound, often unsupported by the sorts of evidence most of us have been taught to look for.”

The upside, Dr. Blackmer said, was that Professor Pye could “explain the otherwise inexplicable.”

Professor Pye took many leadership roles, from work setting up a scholarly center in Hong Kong to posts on the Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Society and the Asian Foundation. Early in his career, he worked with other political scientists to free their field of academic constraints they perceived in the McCarthy period.

Professor Pye is survived by his wife of 63 years, the former Mary Waddill; his daughters Lyndy Pye of Northampton, Mass., and Virginia Pye of Richmond, Va.; his son, Chris, of Northampton; and three grandchildren.

Professor Pye was an early proponent of the Vietnam War. As it ended in 1975 with an American retreat, he was asked by The New York Times about plans to airlift children from South Vietnam. He spoke of both hawks and doves feeling profound guilt.

“Who is the orphan?” Professor Pye asked. “The children, or Vietnam?”

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蒐尋Google,台灣報紙,似乎只有《聯合報》注意這則消息。

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