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紐約時報賞析:女權對抗父權 正在「上演」
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Onscreen, Women Are Giving Patriarchy the Pink Slip
女權對抗父權 正在「上演」
By Candice Frederick

When the #MeToo movement catapulted into the mainstream more than a year ago, survivors around the globe felt more emboldened than ever before to break their silence about sexual abuse at the hands of men. Their stories not only censured the much-deserving perpetrators, but led to a reckoning about gender inequality and misogyny that continues to galvanize society.
當「我也是受害者」運動一年多前猛然躍進主流時,全球各地的受害者感到前所未有的鼓舞,打破沉默出在男人手中遭遇的性虐待。他們的故事不只是譴責罪有應得的加害者,也促成一場對於性別不平等及厭女現象的清算,而這種清算仍然持續激勵著社會。

So much so that we have embraced a new phase of the movement that is redirecting the focus to the women – like Mira Sorvino, Gabrielle Union and Padma Lakshmi – who have stepped out of the shadows of problematic men and reclaimed control of their narratives in fascinating new ways. And now, film and TV have begun to reflect that same shift toward radical female entitlement.
影響之大,讓我們進入這項運動的新階段,即重新聚焦於女性--像是蜜拉索維諾、蓋柏莉尤恩和帕德瑪拉克希米--從有問題男人的陰影中走出來,並以吸引人的新方法重新掌握她們的話語權。而現在,電影和電視已開始觀照這項朝向激進女權主張的轉變。

Take “House of Cards.” You may recall that the Netflix series’ sixth and final season, now streaming, was at first thrown into turmoil after its male lead, Kevin Spacey, was accused of making an unwanted sexual advance in 1986 toward actor Anthony Rapp, who was only 14 at the time. As a result, Spacey was fired from the show and his character, the ruthless President Frank Underwood, was killed off. These events took place after Season 5, when Underwood had resigned to take a more behind-the-scenes role.
以網路影集「紙牌屋」為例,你可能回想起這齣正在網上串流播放、網飛公司的第六季也是最後一季影集,起初曾陷入混亂,因為男主角凱文史貝西被控於1986年時,向當時年僅14的演員安東尼拉普作出令人不悅的性挑逗。結果史貝西被劇組開除,他扮演的冷酷總統法蘭克安德伍被賜死。這些事件發生於第五季播出後,該季以安德伍辭去總統一職,轉為幕後藏鏡人角色作收。

His wife, Claire Underwood (Robin Wright), cunning and manipulative in her own right yet long suffering under her husband’s oppressive ego, found herself in position to seize the presidency. Even though Claire’s master plan had always been to become president, the fact that she continues on this path in Season 6 – without a man trying to pull the strings – is considered an intolerable act of defiance to Frank’s staff, which remains in place even though Claire is in charge. And like life imitating art, “House of Cards” fans and critics alike voiced concerns about how the show would go on without Spacey – and whether it should. The series’ bold final season has obliterated all those doubts.
安德伍的妻子、個性狡猾且善於操縱他人的克萊兒安德伍(羅蘋萊特飾演),長期以來因丈夫的壓迫性格而受苦,但憑藉她自身的能力,找到機會抓住總統大位。儘管當上總統一直是克萊兒的主要計畫,但她在第六季繼續這項目標-沒有男人試圖在背後操縱-卻被法蘭克的幕僚視為無法容忍的反抗行動,即使在她上位後依然如此。而如同人生模擬藝術,劇迷和影評皆關切,少了史貝西後這齣劇如何繼續,以及是否該繼續。這齣影集大膽的最終季已一掃所有質疑。

Because Claire’s ascension followed Frank’s death, her opponents determine that it is ungrounded, forcing her to work twice as hard just to be taken seriously as a potential threat.
因為克萊兒在法蘭克死後接任,她的反對派認為這缺乏根據,迫使她必須加倍努力工作,才能被正眼視為潛在威脅。

How women’s competence has been categorically underestimated and undermined by toxic men, including their own spouses, is also a major impetus for the action in “Widows.” The Steve McQueen-directed crime drama follows three women – Veronica, Linda and Alice – whose lives are upended after their husbands die robbing the nefarious Manning brothers . The Mannings want their money back and, armed with the knowledge that these widows had nothing to do with their husbands’ blood business, come barreling into their lives, confident that they can threaten them into accommodating their demands.
女性的能力如何一直被不懷好意的男性明顯低估及破壞,包括她們的配偶在,也是電影「寡婦」情節的主軸。這部由史提夫麥昆執導的犯罪驚悚片,敘述維若妮卡、琳達和愛麗絲三名女子的丈夫在搶劫惡名昭彰的曼寧兄弟時死亡,她們的生活也因此被翻轉。曼寧兄弟雖認為這些寡婦和丈夫的血腥工作無關,仍闖入她們的生活,想要回他們的錢,對於能威脅寡婦順從他們的要求很有信心。

原文參照:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/28/movies/onscreen-women-metoo-movement.html

2018-12-16 聯合報.D4.紐約時報賞析 莊蕙嘉

文解字看新聞 張佑生

女性長久以來被描述成「男性凝視」的受害者(victim of the ‘male gaze’):男人觀看的行為就是在行使權力,女人則是被凝視遭控制的對象,亦稱「父權凝視」(patriarchal gaze)

如今時代不同了。女性展開反擊,令patriarchy(父權)退散;至少在銀(螢)幕上是如此。Pink slip(解雇通知)的動詞形式是pink-slipThe new director started by immediately pink-slipping a number of key players.

作者介紹新片「寡婦」時指出3位遇人不淑的女主角碰上「渣男」(toxic men)。被牛津字典選為年度代表字(Word of the Year )的toxic意為「有毒的」,今年被廣泛應用在政壇、職場、校園、人際關係上面。Toxic masculinity的危害更在#Me Too運動的風起雲湧下無所遁形。

Looking Back on 100 Years of New York City Drinking Culture, From Gritty to Elegant
從粗獷到風雅 回顧紐約百年飲酒文化
By Dan Saltzstein

The history of drinking in America goes straight through the heart of New York. As with so many aspects of the city, that history has run from gritty to stylish and back again.
美國的飲酒歷史直接穿越紐約的心臟,就像這座城市的許多方面一樣,這段歷史經歷了從粗獷到風雅,再回到當初的過程。

For generations, taverns and saloons were largely places for men to gather, drink, gamble and chew tobacco. Those places could be discerning, as with Fraunces Tavern, a still-existent bar patronized in the 18th century by the likes of George Washington and his soldiers, or more suited to the average Joe, like McSorley’s Old Ale House, which opened in the mid-19th century and, until 1970, admitted only men.
數世代以來,酒館和酒吧大多是男人聚集、喝酒、賭博與嚼菸草的地方。這些地方可能是比較有品味的,像是18世紀喬治華盛頓和他旗下軍人經常光顧、至今依然存在的弗朗西斯酒館,也可能是更適合一般人的,像是19世紀中葉開業,且在1970年前只接待男性的麥克索利酒吧。

By the time McSorley’s had opened, many American bartenders had made a  of inventing what we now think of as craft cocktails. The atmosphere at these locales was often hostile and crude.
當麥克索利開業時,許多美國酒保已具備發明現今所謂精調雞尾酒的專長。這些地方的氣氛常常是不友善而且粗魯的。

Prohibition changed all that. The idea of bars as hospitable, welcoming spaces gained traction when liquor sales became illegal.
禁酒令改變了這一切。當賣酒變成非法時,酒吧是個好客、歡迎人的場所的想法才流行起來。

With the advent of speak-easies, owners and bartenders suddenly had a new clientele: women. The social appeal of speak-easies pulled them into new and vibrant communal spaces. Alongside the new customers came bar stools, live jazz and a new breed of cocktails.
隨著地下酒吧的出現,業主和酒保突然有了一個新的客群:婦女。地下酒吧的社會吸引力將她們拉進新的、充滿活力的公共空間。除了新客群,還出現了酒吧高凳、現場爵士樂與新一代雞尾酒。

Despite the end of Prohibition in 1933, these changes to New York’s drinking culture endured, opening up the cocktail scene to a broader audience.
禁酒令雖於1933年廢止,紐約飲酒文化的這些變化卻持續了下來,將雞尾酒的舞台向更廣泛的觀眾開放。

By the 1960s and into the ‘80s and ‘90s, bar culture in New York had become as varied and textured as the city itself. Cocktail bars got yet another revival at the Rainbow Room, where Dale DeGroff took over the drinks program. In the Village, the Stonewall Inn and others became centers for gay culture, while uptown venues like the Shark Bar attracted a mostly African-American clientele.
到了1960年代並進入19801990年代,紐約的酒吧文化已變得跟城市本身一樣多采多姿。 雞尾酒酒吧在戴爾.第格洛夫接管酒單的彩虹廳又迎來一次流行。在紐約格林威治村,石牆酒吧等處所成了同性戀文化的中心,而鯊魚酒吧等曼哈頓上城場所則吸引了以非洲裔美國人為主的客群。

Today, despite an unfortunate turnover rate, modern New York cocktail bars are doing their best to foster a sense of community and hospitality.
現今,儘管翻桌率很低,但現代的紐約雞尾酒酒吧正盡最大努力營造一種社群意識和好客氣氛。

It’s this spirit that an editorial writer for The Brooklyn Eagle captured in an 1885 column (quoted by David Wondrich in his book “Imbibe”). “The modern American,” the paper observed, “looks for civility and he declines to go where rowdy instincts are rampant.”
這正是《布魯克林鷹報》一位主筆1885年在專欄中提到的精神(大衛·旺德里奇在所著《飲酒》一書中引用了這段文字)。該報評論道:「現代美國人追求文明有禮,他拒去那些粗暴本能猖獗的地方。」

But American bars are not by definition civil. Luckily, it’s as easy to find your watering hole fit today as it was a century ago.
但從定義上,美國酒吧並非文明的。幸運的是,今天很容易找到適合你的酒吧,跟一個世紀前一樣。

原文參照:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/23/nyregion/new-york-bars-history-photos.html

2018-12-16 聯合報.D4.紐約時報賞析 陳韋廷


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