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山本五十六
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珍珠港事變的主持軍事天才: 山本大將的殞落.

一、故事內容

  山本五十六,是太平洋戰爭初期日本海軍聯合艦隊司令長官,早年畢業於江田島海軍大學,並曾留學美國。對美國航空和航艦戰術有獨到精深的研究;日美開戰之始,珍珠港的奇襲,馬來、關島間海域的海空戰鬥以及其後荷印週邊的海戰,由於他作戰計畫的週密、大膽及戰術的新穎,當時不但日本朝野倚之為海上長城,就是世界人士,亦莫不以東亞海軍第一天才相許。但是到了一九四二年夏,他所指揮的日本艦隊,在中途島慘遭敗績,次年春季,他便在南洋前線殞落了。

  山本大將戰死之後,日本朝野惋惜之餘,研討其戰敗致死的原因,都未能找到真正的癥結,直到戰爭結束,由美國官方透露,才使事實真相大白。原來中途島海戰的失敗及山本元帥的戰死,都是由於日本海軍通訊洩密所致。

  一九四二年初夏,日本將南洋諸島全部攻略之後,初期作戰的目標已大致完成,於是開始次期作戰,次期作戰主要目標,在於截斷美澳海上的交通線,以窒息澳洲,而達最後攻略的目的。於是日軍一方面派部隊向索羅門群島推進,另一面則以航空母艦「瑞鶴」(二萬噸)、「翔鳳」(七千五百噸)重巡洋艦「笠青葉」、「加古古鷹」(七千五百噸、八吋砲六門)為主力的艦隊護行輸送船,向新幾內亞南端莫萊斯比港進攻,當日艦隊航抵珊瑚海洋面時,突然遭受到以「列吉辛頓」(一萬三千噸)「約克城」(一萬九千噸)兩母艦為主力的美澳艦隊截擊,經過兩天的海空大戰,日本母艦機群,雖然擊沉了美國母艦「列吉辛頓號」、油船「紐休號」及另外一艘驅逐艦,並炸中了母艦「約克城號」,但本身也損失慘重,「翔鳳號」沉沒、「瑞鶴號」受傷,輸送船相繼沉沒,陷入不能再戰的境地,最後被迫向後撤退,此次戰事使日本南進戰事首遭挫敗。

  日本海軍當局,自不甘因此次挫敗而改變南侵的企圖。於是以島田海相及永野軍令部長山本聯合艦隊司令長官為主的日本海軍首腦部,開始計畫以攻略中途島為目的的另一作戰,山本長官等以為日本海軍的主力,突然自南部戰場轉用於中部太平洋,必非美國意料所及,中途島定能垂手而得,中途島佔領之後,日本海軍的長程轟炸機,即可以該島為基地,前往珍珠港摧毀美國海軍的設備,使散處在太平洋各處的美國艦隊,因失掉補給修理的基地,而陷入進退維谷的困境中,日本海軍的整個海戰就可穩操勝算。

  在日本海軍調動部署的同時,美國海軍由於接獲各航道駐在潛艇的偵查報告,已查覺日艦隊有逐漸北移的跡象,但美國海軍司令部根據片斷的報告,無法正確判斷出日本海軍的企圖,故當時頗有無從措手的苦惱。幸而美國的密碼破譯部門,集中了若干專家的聰明智慧絞盡了腦汁,經過長時間的研究,從截獲譯出的海軍首腦部用無線電下達的調動部署作戰命令中,窺知日本海軍進攻中部太平洋的秘密,於是動員在太平洋僅有的母艦「薩拉特加號」,「約克城號」,配合可能集中的驅逐艦,巡洋艦,在瑞普魯恩斯海軍中將指揮下,向太平洋急駛增援,痛擊日艦隊,並為盟軍奠定了最後勝利基礎。

  一九四三年春季,美軍開始反攻,索羅門群島海面日美軍艦隊展開數次海戰,日方態勢日漸不利,山本長官為激勵前線將士,乃乘機飛赴南方前線視察,在飛往莆特蘭島的前夕,他預告行期的電文再次被截聽破譯,美方深知山本有嚴守時刻的習慣,於是派機群準時前往截擊,在預定的時間和地點,果然發現山本和他的幕僚人員乘坐三架陸上攻擊機,在六架戰鬥機護衛下姍姍而來,美機遂即展開攻擊,日本護航戰鬥機雖拼死迎戰,以保護其主帥,但山本座機終被擊毀,日本一代大將終至殞落。

二、經驗教訓

  (一)從這個戰例中,我們可以知道通信保密的重要,任何密碼經過多次使用後,就有被敵人破譯的可能,所以今後對通信工具及密碼之使用,要特別謹慎小心,不能有絲毫之疏失,才不會為敵所乘。
  (二)「他山之石,可以攻錯」,山本五十六死亡,使日本南太平洋的戰事為之逆轉,加速了日本的敗亡。山本五十六的死因為通信洩密,那麼通信洩密也可以說是促使日本敗亡的原因之一,這一個事例,我們要永遠記取。

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任命南雲忠一? 識人不明!
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zgr

山本五十六稱不上是軍事家,充其量是個短視的戰場指揮官,還是個不稱職的指揮官,中途島的慘敗就是如此。
中途島之戰,山本是總指揮,在2000km外遙控,他任命南雲忠一為現場指揮官,此一任命證明了山本的識人不明,南雲的指揮風格謹小慎微,往往僅僅爲了減小損失而放棄軍人必要的冒險精神,其最大的缺失是優柔寡斷,適合打勝仗,一旦受挫就會手足失措。

山本給南雲的任務有二:一是攻佔中途島,二是殲滅美軍航母,這完全超越了南雲的能力。

�X�B:世上最無能的軍事指揮官----山本五十六 - zgr 的網誌 - udn部落格http://blog.udn.com/zgr/10503259#ixzz2tKS6xnuF




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山本與南雲
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學習軍事, 讓山本到美國哈佛大學深造. 也造成他如同孫賓龐涓的命運: 學校同儕, 將來是戰場上的對手!

與山本相對, 另外一位海軍大將 - 南雲忠一, 就相形失色!


今天日本狂妄地說要二十分鐘解決解放軍艦隊, 就是癡心妄想: 要重複美國在中途島的幸運, 抓住南雲忠一的錯誤, 五分鐘解決日本皇軍海軍的幾艘航空母艦.


珍珠港事變, 可以說是山本獨立完成! 南雲忠一竟然做壁上觀! 沒有加入戰鬥!


维基百科


評論


南雲中將的功過在歷史上很難下個定論,在戰前,南雲在海軍內部的評價是:「勇猛,富決斷力,並且是未來擔負海軍責任的人」,但開戰之後,一般來說,許多戰史評論者認為他犯了很多錯誤,包括:



  1. 在攻擊珍珠港時,雖然山口多聞少將與三川軍一中將都建議進行第三波攻擊,但南雲並未採納。

  2. 中途島之役中,拒絕山口少將先攻美軍的建議,並因更換武裝與回收飛機而延誤近兩小時才準備攻擊,也正好在這時,美軍轟炸機找到了南雲艦隊,並發動突襲。

  3. 在聖塔克魯茲之役中,南雲把指揮權移交給角田中將,自己脫離戰場。結果角田積極的攻擊精神,讓南雲反而像是脫逃。


反論者則認為:



  1. 前兩波攻擊珍珠港已花去太多時間,南雲並不知道美軍航艦的位置,如果再準備第三波攻擊,一來可能給美國人反擊的機會,二來日軍此時已無奇襲可能,第三波攻擊的損失可能會很大。此外,雖然有部屬建議進行第三波攻擊,但南雲的參謀長草鹿少將反對,督戰的山本大將的意願也不高,加上軍令部總長永野修身大將也有「要把每一艘航艦安全帶回」的命令。

  2. 中途島之役中,日軍的攻擊機群因無戰機護航,而導致嚴重損失。若依山口的建議直接攻擊,除了日軍的攻擊機隊可能嚴重損失外,大部份前往攻擊中途島的飛機也可能因為無法降落最後因油料不足而全數損失(當時航艦進行起飛作業無法回收其他飛機)。這是草鹿少將與源田中佐反對立刻攻擊的理由 [4]


此外,由於軍事哲學的不同,日本重攻擊但輕防禦,因此當日軍攻擊美軍重防護的飛機與船艦時,往往被美軍的防衛系統痛擊。加上缺乏早期預警系統(雷達),一旦被攻擊,日軍的防禦常常被突破,這也讓日軍從珊瑚海之役後就漸次喪失制海權。但這些技術性的事務並非南雲所能改變。有評論者曾論,如果南雲不是指揮第一航空艦隊,而是指揮以巡洋艦與驅逐艦所組成的第2戰隊,可能更符合南雲的個性 [5]







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美军刺杀山本五十六
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Vengeance

Death

To boost morale following the defeat at Guadalcanal, Yamamoto decided to make an inspection tour throughout the South Pacific. On 14 April 1943, the US naval intelligence effort, code-named "Magic", intercepted and decrypted a message containing specific details regarding Yamamoto's tour, including arrival and departure times and locations, as well as the number and types of planes that would transport and accompany him on the journey. Yamamoto, the itinerary revealed, would be flying from Rabaul to Ballalae Airfield, on an island near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands, on the morning of 18 April 1943.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox to "Get Yamamoto." Knox instructed Admiral Chester W. Nimitz of Roosevelt's wishes. Admiral Nimitz consulted Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr., Commander, South Pacific, then authorized a mission on 17 April to intercept Yamamoto's flight en route and shoot it down.

A squadron of P-38 Lightning aircraft were assigned the task as only they possessed the range to intercept and engage. Eighteen hand-picked pilots from three units were informed that they were intercepting an "important high officer" with no specific name given.

Yamamoto's last photo alive (April 18, 1943)

On the morning of 18 April, despite urgings by local commanders to cancel the trip for fear of ambush, Yamamoto's twoMitsubishi G4M fast transport aircraft left Rabaul as scheduled for the 315 mi (507 km) trip. Shortly after, 18 P-38s with long-range drop tanks took off from Guadalcanal. Sixteen arrived after wave-hopping most of the 430 mi (690 km) to the rendezvous point, maintaining radio silence throughout. At 09:34 Tokyo time, the two flights met and a dogfight ensued between the P-38s and the six escorting A6M Zeroes.

First Lieutenant Rex T. Barber engaged the first of the two Japanese transports which turned out to be Yamamoto's plane. He targeted the aircraft with gunfire until it began to spew smoke from its left engine. Barber turned away to attack the other transport as Yamamoto's plane crashed into the jungle.

The crash site and body of Yamamoto were found the next day in the jungle north of the then-coastal site of the former Australian patrol post of Buin by a Japanese search and rescue party, led by army engineer, Lieutenant Hamasuna. According to Hamasuna, Yamamoto had been thrown clear of the plane's wreckage, his white-gloved hand grasping the hilt of his katana, still upright in his seat under a tree. Hamasuna said Yamamoto was instantly recognizable, head dipped down as if deep in thought. A post-mortem of the body disclosed that Yamamoto had received two gunshot wounds, one to the back of his left shoulder and another to his left lower jaw that exited above his right eye.

To cover up the fact that the Allies were reading Japanese code, American news agencies were told that civilian coast-watchers in the Solomon Islands saw Yamamoto boarding a bomber in the area. They did not publicize the names of most of the pilots that attacked Yamamoto's plane because one of them had a brother who was a prisoner of the Japanese, and U.S. military officials feared for his safety.

State Funeral for Yamamoto in Tokyo

This proved to be the longest fighter-intercept mission of the war. In Japan, it became known as the "Navy A Incident" (海軍甲事件 Kaigun -jiken). It raised morale in the United States, and shocked the Japanese who were officially told about the incident only on 21 May 1943. The death of Yamamoto was a major psychological blow for the Japanese nation which had been told of victory after victory even after Midway and Guadalcanal. It also forced the Japanese government to acknowledge that the Americans were quickly rebuilding their military capacity and had begun going on the offensive.

His staff cremated his remains at Buin, and the ashes were returned to Tokyo aboard the battleship Musashi, Yamamoto's last flagship. Yamamoto was given a full state funeral on 5 June 1943,[25] where he received, posthumously, the title of Marshal and was awarded the Order of the Chrysanthemum, (1st Class). He was also awarded Nazi Germany's Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. Part of his ashes were buried in the public cemetery in Tama, Tokyo (多摩霊園), and the remainder at his ancestral burial grounds at the temple of Chuko-ji in Nagaoka City. He was succeeded as commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet by AdmiralMineichi Koga.

阵亡

主条目:复仇行动

在瓜岛战役失败后,山本决定前往南太平洋前线视察以便鼓舞士气。1943年4月14日,代号“魔术”的美国海军情报部门截获并破译了包含山本行程详细信息的电文,包括到达时间、离埠时间和相关地点,以及山本即将搭乘的飞机型号和护航阵容。上述电文显示山本将从拉包尔起飞前往所罗门群岛布干维尔岛附近的野战机场,时间是1943年4月18日早上。

美国总统富兰克林·罗斯福命令海军部长弗兰克·诺克斯干掉山本Get Yamamoto)”。诺克斯授意切斯特·尼米兹海军上将执行罗斯福的命令。尼米兹与南太平洋战区指挥官威廉·哈尔西商讨后,在4月17日批准了拦截并击落山本座机的刺杀任务

一个中队的P-38闪电式战斗机受命执行拦截任务,因为只有这种飞机才有足够的航程。18位从三支不同部队精选出来的飞行员被告知他们即将拦截一名“重要的高级军官”,但并未得知具体姓名。

山本五十六阵亡前最后一张照片,1943年4月18日。

4月18日早晨,山本不顾当地指挥官关于遭伏击风险的劝告,搭乘两架三菱一式陆攻快速运输机从拉包尔按时起飞,计划飞行315分钟。不久,18架加挂副油箱的P-38式战斗机从瓜岛机场起飞。经过430英里无线电静默超低空飞行,有16架到达目标空域。东京时间9点43分,双方编队遭遇,6架护航的零式战斗机立刻开始与美机缠斗。

列克斯·巴伯中尉攻击了两架一式陆攻中的第一架,事后证明是舷号T1-323的山本座机。他不断射击该敌机直到后者左引擎开始冒出黑烟。在巴伯转而进攻另一架运输机时,山本的座机坠落到丛林中。

山本座机的坠落地点位于此前澳大利亚海岸巡逻队在布因岛的据点以北,第二天有一支日军搜救小队找到了这个地点,带队的是日军工兵中尉滨砂。据滨砂中尉回忆,山本的遗体位于飞机残骸之外的一棵树下,仍旧坐在座椅之上,戴着白色手套的双手拄着他的日本刀。滨砂说他当场就认出了山本,海军大将的头微微低下犹如陷入沉思。解剖报告显示山本身上有两处枪伤:一发子弹自身后穿透他的左肩,另一发子弹从他的下颌左后方射入,从右眼上方穿出。即便有此报告为证,关于山本是否从坠落中生还一直都有争议。 为防止日军得知自己的密码已泄露,美国新闻媒体被告知是所罗门群岛当地人的海岸观察站目击到山本登上一式陆攻。新闻媒体也没有公开大部分参与刺杀行动的美军飞行员的名字,因为其中一人的兄弟当时是日军战俘,有被虐杀的可能。

在东京举行的山本五十六国葬仪式。

这次任务成为二次大战中持续时间最长的战斗机拦截任务。在日本,山本阵亡的事件被称为“海军甲事件”。日本当局一直拖到1943年5月21日才公布山本的死讯,朝野震惊。对于被宣传机构蒙骗,以为日军自开战以来不断高歌猛进的日本民众来说,山本之死所造成的精神打击是难以估量的。日本政府也因此被迫承认美军的战争能力正在迅速恢复,甚至开始反击。

山本的遗体在布因岛被火化,他的骨灰由他最后的旗舰——武藏号战列舰运回东京。山本于1943年6月3日获得国葬待遇,葬仪委员长由米内光政担任。同时,山本被追授元帅军衔、大勳位菊花章。稍早(5月27日),纳粹德国也宣布追授山本橡叶双剑骑士铁十字勋章,在获颁这一勋章的159人之中,只有山本不是德国人。他的部分骨灰被葬在东京多摩霊園,剩下的部分则运回家乡长冈市安葬。

Controversy

Rex Barber wearing the Navy Cross he received for his actions during the mission that killed Yamamoto.

Lanphier initially received credit for the kill of Yamamoto's bomber, but the other pilots on the mission were immediately skeptical. Although one of the most expertly-executed missions in history, the interception was subsequently marred by controversy over who actually shot down Yamamoto and by Navy outrage over unauthorized releases of operational details to the press, including an October 1943 issue of Time Magazine which featured articles on both the shootdown and Lanphier by name. Mitchell had been nominated for the Medal of Honor for the mission, but as a result of the security issues this was downgraded to the Navy Cross, which he and all the pilots of the killer flight were subsequently awarded.

After the war it was found that none of the escorting Japanese fighters were shot down—only one was damaged enough that it required a day of repair at Buin—and Lanphier was stripped of his claim for a Zero shot down. Since other Zero fighters were taking off from nearby Kahili airfield, both Barber and Holmes were allowed their claims during the second combat. Also records confirmed that only two bombers had been shot down, not three, and subsequently the Air corps officially awarded "half kills" to Lanphier and Barber for the Yamamoto shootdown. A video-taped interview in 1985 with one of the escorting Zero pilotsKenji Yanagiya, appeared to corroborate Barber's claim, but the Air Force declined to reopen the issue.

Rex Barber then sued in Federal Court to have the ruling of the Secretary of the Air Force overturned and the opposing claims re-investigated, but the court refused to intervene. But in 2003, he was officially credited with the sole kill after an inspection analyzed the crash site and determined the path of the bullet impacts, thereby validating Barber's account and invalidating Lanphier's claim.[citation needed] In the May 2006 issue of Air Force Magazine, Douglas S. Canning, a former member of the 347th Fighter Group who flew the Yamamoto mission (Canning escorted Lt. Holmes back to the Russells) and was friends with both Lanphier and Barber, published a letter in which he stated that Lanphier, in addition to writing the official report, medal citations, and several magazine articles, had also written a detailed manuscript, never published, claiming he alone shot down Yamamoto. Until reading that manuscript, Barber had been willing to share half credit for the kill. Canning cites the testimony of the Japanese Zero pilot, Yanagiya, that Yamamoto's Betty crashed 20 to 30 seconds after being hit by fire from a P-38, and from Admiral Ugaki on the second Betty that Yamamoto's plane crashed 20 seconds after being struck. Canning stated categorically that the P-38Gs flown that day did not have aileron boost to assist in turning (as did later models) and that it was physically impossible for Lanphier's aircraft to have made the 180 degree turn he claimed in order to shoot down Yamamoto.






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